, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 522–527

Resistance to conventional insecticides in Pakistani populations of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential ectoparasite of dairy animals


    • Department of EntomologyBahauddin Zakariya University
    • Institute of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of the Punjab
  • Waseem Akram
    • Department of Agri-EntomologyUniversity of Agriculture
  • Sarfraz Ali Shad
    • Department of EntomologyBahauddin Zakariya University

DOI: 10.1007/s10646-013-1044-2

Cite this article as:
Khan, H.A.A., Akram, W. & Shad, S.A. Ecotoxicology (2013) 22: 522. doi:10.1007/s10646-013-1044-2


The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important hygienic pest of humans and dairy animals with the potential to develop resistance to most chemical classes of insecticides. Six adult house fly strains from dairy farms in Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated for resistance to selected insecticides from organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid classes. For a chlorocyclodiene and two organophosphates tested, the resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 were in the range of 5.60–22.02 fold for endosulfan, 7.66–23.24 fold for profenofos and 2.47–7.44 fold for chlorpyrifos. For two pyrethroids and one carbamate, the RR values at LC50 were 30.22–70.02 for cypermethrin, 5.73–18.31 for deltamethrin, and 4.39–15.50 for methomyl. This is the first report of resistance to different classes of insecticides in Pakistani dairy populations of house flies. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring programs on dairy farms are needed to prevent field control failures. Moreover, integrated approaches including the judicious use of insecticides are needed to delay the development of insecticide resistance in house flies.


PesticideBioassayPyrethroidOrganophosphateCarbamateHouse fly

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013