, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 802-813
Date: 10 Jun 2009

Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA

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Abstract

Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-α-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of ΣPBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2–275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507–1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61–157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29–84) did ΣPBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and ΣPBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs from Everett, WA contained nearly twice the ΣPBDE concentration (geometric mean 239 vs. 141 ng/g ww, range 124–384 vs. 22.2–819 ng/g ww, P ≤ 0.05) as double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected at the same location and time, which is likely due to dietary differences. No significant relationship (all Ps > 0.147) was indicated between PBDE congeners (including ΣPBDEs) and eggshell thickness at the concentrations observed in this study.