Aerial and aquatic feeding in the silver arawana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum
Received: 12 November 2004 Accepted: 07 February 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Lowry, D., Wintzer, A.P., Matott, M.P. et al. Environ Biol Fish (2005) 73: 453. doi:10.1007/s10641-005-3214-4 Synopsis
The silver arawana,
Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, hunts along shorelines and within flooded forests in the Amazon River basin and supplements its limited consumption of aquatic vertebrates by leaping from the water to obtain terrestrial and arboreal prey. We offered O. bicirrhosum prey both suspended above and submerged below the surface of the water. From high-speed digital recordings, we measured kinematic variables associated with the jaws, cranium, pectoral fins, and body during orientation and prey capture. Aquatic and aerial feeding events were kinematically distinct, with aerial events generally involving faster, larger movements and a distinct delay in the onset of lower jaw depression until the head had left the water. The comparatively large gape during leaping may facilitate prey capture by overcoming variability in the apparent position of the prey due to refraction, while the delayed onset of mouth opening may serve to reduce the effects of drag. This distinctive leaping behaviour allows exploitation of the terrestrial prey base, especially during seasonal inundation of the Amazon River basin when the aquatic food base is widely dispersed. Keywords leaping kinematics Osteoglossomorpha feeding behaviour feeding ecology References Alfaro, M.E. 2003 Sweeping and striking: a kinematic study of the trunk during prey capture in three thamnophiine snakes J. Exp. Biol. 206 2381 2392 Google Scholar Cabin, R.J., Mitchell, R.J. 2000 To Bonferroni or not to Bonferroni: When and how are the questions Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 81 246 248 Google Scholar Cook, A. 1996 Ontogeny of feeding morphology and kinematics in juvenile fishes: a case study of the cottid fish Clinocottus analis J. Exp. Biol. 199 1961 1971 Google Scholar Deban, S.M., Marks, S.B. 2002 Metamorphosis and the evolution of feeding behavior in salamanders of the family Plethodontidae Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 134 375 400 Google Scholar Dill, L.M. 1977 Refraction and the spitting behavior of the archerfish ( Toxotes chatareus) Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 2 169 184 Google Scholar Galacatos, K., Barriga-Salazar, R., Stewart, D.J. 2004 Seasonal and habitat influences on fish communities within the lower Yasuni River basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon Environ. Biol. Fish. 71 33 51 Google Scholar Gans, C., Gorniak, G.C. 1982 Functional morphology of lingual protrusion in marine toads ( Bufo marinus) Am. J. Anat. 163 195 222 Google Scholar Goulding, M. 1980The Fishes and the Forest: Explorations in Amazonian Natural History University of California Press Los Angeles 280 Google Scholar Harrison, I.J., Miller, P.J. 1992 Gobiidae Teugels, G.G. eds. Fauna des Poissons d’Eaux douces et saumatres de l’Afrique de l’ouest Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale Paris, France 798 821 Google Scholar
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