Shoaling behaviour of sticklebacks infected with the microsporidian parasite, Glugea anomala
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
We compared the shoaling behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, infected with the microsporidian, Glugea anomala, to that of non-infected conspecifics. Infected fish lost significantly more weight than non-infected fish during a period of food deprivation, suggesting a metabolic cost to parasitism. In binary shoal choice tests, non-infected test fish showed an association preference for a shoal of non-infected over a shoal of infected conspecifics; infected test fish displayed no preference. Infected fish, however, showed a higher overall tendency to shoal than non-parasitised fish. Furthermore, infected fish occupied front positions within a mixed school. We consider the behavioural differences between infected and uninfected fish in the context of their potential benefits to the fish hosts and the parasites.
- Alexander, R.D. (1974) The evolution of social behaviour. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Systems 5: pp. 325-383
- Arme, C., Owen, R.W. (1776) Infections of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., with the plerocercoid larvae of Schistocephalus solidus Müller, 1776, with special reference to pathological effects. Parasitology 57: pp. 301-314 CrossRef
- Barber, I. (1997) A non-invasive morphometric technique for estimating cestode plerocercoid burden in small freshwater fish. J. Fish Biol. 51: pp. 654-658
- Barber, I., Hoare, D., Krause, J. (2000) The effects of parasites on fish behaviour: An evolutionary perspective and review. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10: pp. 1-35 CrossRef
- Barber, I., Huntingford, F.A., Crompton, D.W.T. (1995) The effect of hunger and cestode parasitism on the shoaling decisions of small fresh-water fish. J. Fish Biol. 47: pp. 524-536
- Brown, C.R., Brown, M.B. (1986) Ectoparasitism as a cause of natal dispersal in cliff swallows. Ecology 67: pp. 1206-1218
- Canning, E.U. Microsporidia. In: Kreier, J.P. eds. (1977) Parasitic Protozoa. Academic Press, New York, pp. 155-197
- Canning, E.U., Lom, J. (1986) The Microsporidia of Vertebrates. Academic Press, London
- Côté, I.M., Poulin, R. (1995) Parasitism and group-size in social animals–a meta-analysis. Behav. Ecol. 6: pp. 159-165 CrossRef
- Giles, N. (1983) Behavioural effects of the parasite Schistocephalus solidus Cestoda on an intermediate host, the 3-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Anim. Behav. 31: pp. 1192-1194
- Hensor, E.M.A., Godin, J.-G.J., Hoare, D.J., Krause, J. (2003) Effects of nutritional state on the shoaling tendency of banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus, in the field. Anim. Behav. 65: pp. 663-669
- Krause, J. (1994) Differential fitness returns in relation to spatial positions in groups. Biol. Rev. 69: pp. 187-206
- Krause, J., Godin, J.-G.J. (1995) Predator preference for attacking particular prey group sizes–consequences for predator hunting success and prey predation risk. Anim. Behav. 50: pp. 465-473
- Krause, J., Loader, S.P., McDermott, J., Ruxton, G.D. (1998) Refuge use by fish as a function of body length-related metabolic expenditure and predation risks. Proc. The Roy. Soc. London Series B 265: pp. 2373-2379
- Krause, J., Ruxton, G.D. (2002) Living in Groups. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
- Milinski, M. (1984) Parasites determine a predator’s optima feeding strategy. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 15: pp. 35-37
- Milinski, M. (1985) Risk of predation of parasitised sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus L. under competition for food. Behaviour 93: pp. 203-216
- Milinski, M. Parasite and host decision-making. In: Barnard, C.J., Behnke, J.M. eds. (1990) Parasitism and Host Behaviour. Taylor and Francis, London, UK, pp. 95-116
- Taylor, R.E.L., Lott, M. (1978) Transmission of salmonid whirling disease by birds fed trout infected with Myxosoma cerebralis. J. Protozool. 25: pp. 105-106
- Turner, G.F., Pitcher, T.J. (1986) Attack abatement: A model for group protection by combined avoidance and dilution. Am. Natural. 128: pp. 228-240
- Walkey, M., Meakins, R.H. (1970) An attempt to balance the energy budget of a host-parasite system. J. Fish Biol. 2: pp. 361-372
- Ward, A.J.W., Axford, S., Krause, J. (2003) Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 270: pp. 1157-1161
- Ward, A.J.W., Hoare, D.J., Couzin, I.D., Broom, M., Krause, J. (2002) The effects of parasitism and body length on positioning within wild fish shoals. J. Anim. Ecol. 71: pp. 10-14
- Ward, A.J.W., Krause, J. (2001) Body length assortative shoaling in the European minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus. Anim. Behav. 62: pp. 617-621
- Ward, A.J.W., P. Thomas, P.J.B. Hart & J. Krause. in press. Correlates of Boldness in Three-Spined Sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
- Weissenberg, R. (1968) Intracellular development of the microsporidian Glugea anomala Moniez in hypertrophying migratory cells of the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus L., an example of the formation of “xenoma” tumours. J. Protozool. 15: pp. 44-57
- Shoaling behaviour of sticklebacks infected with the microsporidian parasite, Glugea anomala
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Volume 72, Issue 2 , pp 155-160
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Gasterosteus aculeatus
- Author Affiliations
- 1. University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, U.K.
- 3. Department of Biology, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH, U.K.
- 2. Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Wales Aberystwyth, SY23 3DA, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales, U.K.