Discrete Event Dynamic Systems

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 293-332

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Modeling and control of switching max-plus-linear systems with random and deterministic switching

  • Ton J. J. van den BoomAffiliated withDelft Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology Email author 
  • , Bart De SchutterAffiliated withDelft Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology


Switching max-plus-linear (SMPL) systems are discrete-event systems that can switch between different modes of operation. In each mode the system is described by a max-plus-linear state equation and a max-plus-linear output equation, with different system matrices for each mode. The switching may depend on the inputs and the states, or it may be a stochastic process. In this paper two equivalent descriptions for switching max-plus-linear systems will be discussed. We will also show that a switching max-plus-linear system can be written as a piecewise affine system or as a constrained max-min-plus-scaling system. The last translation can be established under (rather mild) additional assumptions on the boundedness of the states and the inputs. We also develop a stabilizing model predictive controller for SMPL systems with deterministic and/or stochastic switching. In general, the optimization in the model predictive control approach then boils down to a nonlinear nonconvex optimization problem, where the cost criterion is piecewise polynomial on polyhedral sets and the inequality constraints are linear. However, in the case of stochastic switching that depends on the previous mode only, the resulting optimization problem can be solved using linear programming algorithms.


Discrete-event systems Randomly switching max-plus-linear systems Equivalent classes Stabilizing control Model predictive control