Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 192–200

Clinical Presentation and Survival of Asian and Non-Asian Patients with HCV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Benjamin Yip
  • James M. Wantuck
  • Lily H. Kim
  • Robert J. Wong
  • Aijaz Ahmed
  • Gabriel Garcia
  • Mindie H. Nguyen
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10620-013-2948-7

Cite this article as:
Yip, B., Wantuck, J.M., Kim, L.H. et al. Dig Dis Sci (2014) 59: 192. doi:10.1007/s10620-013-2948-7


Background and Aim

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asians; however, it is often overlooked due to the high prevalence of hepatitis B virus in Asians. This study examines HCV-related HCC in Asians.


We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 792 consecutive Asian (n = 220) and non-Asian (n = 572) patients with HCV-related HCC identified at Stanford University Medical Center using International Classification of Diseases-9 diagnosis between July 1996 and June 2012.


Asian patients were much older [66 (38–88) vs. 56 (31–87) years, P < 0.0001] and more likely to be female (33 vs. 19 %, P < 0.0001). A larger proportion of Asians were diagnosed with HCC within 2 years of HCV diagnosis (35 vs. 20 %, P = 0.001). Asian patients were more likely to undergo palliative therapy (46 vs. 28 %) and less likely to be listed for liver transplantation (20 vs. 48 %, P < 0.001), despite similar rates of meeting Milan criteria (52 vs. 58 %, P = 0.16). Overall, there was a trend for higher median survival rates in Asians (30 vs. 21 months, P = 0.091). Asians had higher long-term survival with palliative therapy only (5-year survival: 28 vs. 10 %, P < 0.0001); however, survival was similar among patients listed for liver transplantation.


There were distinct differences in clinical presentations of Asian and non-Asian patients with HCV-related HCC. Asians with HCV-related HCC are less likely to undergo liver transplantation and more likely to have delayed HCV diagnosis. Improved strategies in HCV screening in Asians are needed, as it may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of HCV infection and possible prevention of HCC development.


EthnicityTransplantLiver cancerChronic hepatitis C



American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases


Barcelona clinic liver cancer


Body mass index




Hepatitis B virus


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


Hazards ratio


International Classification of Diseases-9


Model for end-stage liver disease


Odds ratio


University of California, San Francisco

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Yip
    • 1
    • 2
  • James M. Wantuck
    • 3
  • Lily H. Kim
    • 4
  • Robert J. Wong
    • 2
  • Aijaz Ahmed
    • 2
  • Gabriel Garcia
    • 2
  • Mindie H. Nguyen
    • 2
  1. 1.Medical SchoolEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyStanford University Medical CenterPalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineStanford University Medical CenterPalo AltoUSA
  4. 4.Stanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA