, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 950-958
Date: 18 Nov 2012

Orally Administered Phosphatidic Acids and Lysophosphatidic Acids Ameliorate Aspirin-Induced Stomach Mucosal Injury in Mice

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Recent investigations revealed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a phospholipid with a growth factor-like activity, plays an important role in the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium.


This paper attempts to clarify the effect of orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) and LPA on aspirin-induced gastric lesions in mice.

Materials and Methods

Phospholipids, a free fatty acid, a diacylglycerol and a triglyceride at 1 mM (5.7 μmol/kg body weight) or 0.1 mM were orally administered to mice 0.5 h before oral administration of aspirin (1.7 mmol/kg). The total length of lesions formed on the stomach wall was measured as a lesion index. Formation of LPA from PA in the mouse stomach was examined by in vitro (in stomach lavage fluid), ex vivo (in an isolated stomach) and in vivo (in the stomach of a living mouse) examinations of phospholipase activity.


Palmitic acid, dioleoyl-glycerol, olive oil and lysophosphatidylcholine did not affect the aspirin-induced lesions. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine (1 mM), LPA (1 mM) and PA (0.1, 1 mM) significantly reduced the lesion index. Evidence for formation of LPA from PA in the stomach by gastric phospholipase A2 was obtained by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments. An LPA-specific receptor, LPA2, was found to be localized on the gastric surface-lining cells of mice.


Pretreatment with PA-rich diets may prevent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced stomach ulcers.

The fatty acyl moieties of lipids are designated in terms of the number of carbon atoms and double bonds: 16:0, palmitoyl group; 18:1, oleoyl group; 18:2, linoleoyl group.