, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 243-249

Very Low Viral Load (VLVL) Relapse Following Treatment of Naïve Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

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Abstract

Background

Sustained virologic response (SVR) to treatment of naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) with pegylated interferon and ribavirin is 50–60%. Patients who relapse have a poor response to re-treatment. We report a group of relapse patients with SVR to low-dose re-treatment after 6 months.

Aim

Characterization of HCV relapse patients with very low viral load (VLVL) (HCV RNA <5,000 IU/ml) 6 months after stopping full-dose initial treatment.

Methods

We identified 120 consecutive naïve patients over 4 years treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin with full-dose therapy for 24 weeks (non-genotype 1) or 48 weeks (genotype 1) with baseline liver biopsy and at least 6 months of follow-up after treatment. HCV RNA by PCR and hepatic blood tests were obtained monthly during treatment and at least 1, 3, and 6 months post treatment.

Results

Of the initially treated patients, 54.2% had SVR, 25% non-response and 20.8% relapsed. Four of 25 who relapsed (16%) and one similar patient referred to our program had HCV RNA <5,000 IU/ml 6 months after stopping treatment (VLVL relapse). Significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with the 21 other relapse patients included all five patients who were genotype 1; 4/5 had cirrhosis, baseline HCV RNA was lower, and all had SVR to less intensive re-treatment for 6 months.

Conclusion

VLVL relapse patients should be sought, because SVR to re-treatment is common despite genotype 1 cirrhosis.