Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 269–273

Infectious Proctitis: When to Suspect It Is Not Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s10620-011-1935-0

Cite this article as:
Hoentjen, F. & Rubin, D.T. Dig Dis Sci (2012) 57: 269. doi:10.1007/s10620-011-1935-0

Abstract

Background

Proctitis is a common problem and is most frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the incidence of infectious proctitis appears to be rising, especially in men who have sex with men. This may be due to the rise of people participating in receptive anal sex as well as the increase in sexually transmitted infections. The most frequently reported pathogens include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex.

Diagnosis

Symptoms of infectious proctitis can include rectal blood and mucous discharge, anorectal pain, ulcers, and occasionally lymphadenopathy and fever. History and physical examination are crucial in establishing a diagnosis, supported by endoscopy, histology, serology, culture and PCR.

Treatment

Treatment with antibiotics or antivirals is usually initiated, either empirically or after establishing a diagnosis. Co-infections, HIV testing, and treatment of sexual partners should always be considered.

Keywords

ChlamydiaGonorrheaHerpes simplexInfectious proctitisLymphogranuloma venereumRectumSyphilis

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Inflammatory Bowel Disease CenterUniversity of Chicago Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of GastroenterologyVrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands