Original Article

Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 109-118

First online:

Excess Comorbidity Prevalence and Cost Associated with Functional Dyspepsia in an Employed Population

  • Richard A. BrookAffiliated withThe JeSTARx Group Email author 
  • , Nathan L. KleinmanAffiliated withThe HCMS Group
  • , Rok Seon ChoungAffiliated withDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of MedicineDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Korea University College of Medicine
  • , James E. SmeedingAffiliated withThe JeSTARx Group
  • , Nicholas J. TalleyAffiliated withDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of MedicineFaculty of Health, University of Newcastle

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access



Limited published data exist on the associated comorbid conditions with functional dyspepsia (FD).


This study aimed to assess the prevalence, services, and costs related to comorbid conditions associated with FD and the risk of having FD for each comorbid condition.


A retrospective database analysis was undertaken using payroll data and adjudicated claims from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2004 among >300,000 employees. Employees with FD were compared to propensity-score-matched employees without FD (controls). Outcome measures included the prevalence, costs, and utilization of health services for comorbid conditions as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the odds ratios of having FD from a multivariate model.


FD employees (N = 1,669) and a 50:1 matched control cohort (N = 83,450) were compared. Compared to matched controls, FD employees were more likely to have all major diagnostic categories. Moreover, 199/261 of the AHRQ’s specific categories were more common in the FD cohort. Annual medical costs for the FD cohort were greater than for controls in 155/261 (59%) specific categories and significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) in 76 categories (29%). Similarly, services were greater for 179/261 (69%) specific categories and significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) in 110 categories (42%). In a multivariate model, esophageal disorders, gastritis and duodenitis, and abdominal pain were the most associated with having FD (odds ratios 3.8, 3.7, and 3.6, respectively). Only hypertension complications and disorders of the teeth and jaw were significantly negatively associated with FD.


There is unexplained excess comorbidity associated with FD which may be a major determining factor for excess healthcare services and costs.


Functional dyspepsia Comorbidities Costs Prevalence