Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 1540–1546

Biliary Complications Following Liver Transplantation


    • Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyStanford University
  • Carlos O. Esquivel
    • Division of Transplantation, Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and InfectionStanford University
  • Paul Martin
    • Division of HepatologyUniversity of Miami Miller School of Medicine

DOI: 10.1007/s10620-010-1217-2

Cite this article as:
Ayoub, W.S., Esquivel, C.O. & Martin, P. Dig Dis Sci (2010) 55: 1540. doi:10.1007/s10620-010-1217-2


The aphorism that reconstruction of the biliary anastomosis is the “Achilles heel” of liver transplantation remains valid as biliary complications following liver transplantation remain a major source of morbidity with an incidence of 5–32%. Biliary complications include biliary strictures, biliary leaks, and stones. Biliary strictures can be divided into anastomotic and non-anastomotic. The management of biliary complications previously relied on surgical intervention. However, advances in endoscopic and radiological interventions have resulted in less-invasive options. The management of biliary complications post-liver transplantation requires a multidisciplinary approach and continues to evolve. Biliary complications also reflect the continued expansion of the donor pool with extended, live, and non-heart beating donors.


Anastomotic stricturesNon-anastomotic stricturesLiver transplantationBiliary complicationsBilomasStones

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010