Clustering daily patterns of human activities in the city
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- Jiang, S., Ferreira, J. & González, M.C. Data Min Knowl Disc (2012) 25: 478. doi:10.1007/s10618-012-0264-z
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Data mining and statistical learning techniques are powerful analysis tools yet to be incorporated in the domain of urban studies and transportation research. In this work, we analyze an activity-based travel survey conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area over a demographic representative sample of its population. Detailed data on activities by time of day were collected from more than 30,000 individuals (and 10,552 households) who participated in a 1-day or 2-day survey implemented from January 2007 to February 2008. We examine this large-scale data in order to explore three critical issues: (1) the inherent daily activity structure of individuals in a metropolitan area, (2) the variation of individual daily activities—how they grow and fade over time, and (3) clusters of individual behaviors and the revelation of their related socio-demographic information. We find that the population can be clustered into 8 and 7 representative groups according to their activities during weekdays and weekends, respectively. Our results enrich the traditional divisions consisting of only three groups (workers, students and non-workers) and provide clusters based on activities of different time of day. The generated clusters combined with social demographic information provide a new perspective for urban and transportation planning as well as for emergency response and spreading dynamics, by addressing when, where, and how individuals interact with places in metropolitan areas.