, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 83-95
Date: 22 Jul 2012

Differential effects of Oroxylum indicum bark extracts: antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and apoptotic study

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Abstract

Stem bark of Oroxylum indicum (L) (SBOI) is used by ethnic communities of North East India as health tonic and in treating diseases of humans and animals. The objective of this research was to carry out a detailed investigation including total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of different solvent extracts of SBOI and to establish correlation between some parameters. Among petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH) extract of SBOI, MeOH extract contained the highest amount of total phenolic (320.7 ± 34.6 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and flavonoid (346.6 ± 15.2 mg Quercetin equivalent/g extract) content. In vitro antioxidant activity (IC50 22.7 μg/ml) was highest in MeOH extract (p > 0.05) and also a significant inverse correlation was observed between phenolic (r = 0.886)/flavonoid (r = 0.764) content and corresponding DPPH IC50. Only MeOH extract inhibited both bacteria and fungi. Although, individual extract showed cytotoxicity on HeLa cells with characteristic features of apoptosis, PE extract caused maximum cytotoxicity (IC50 of 112.3 μg/ml, p < 0.05) and apoptotic activity (33.2 % sub-G0/G1 population) on HeLa cells. But, there was a significant non-inverse correlation of the MTT IC50 with total phenolic (r = 0.812, p < 0.05)/flavonoid (r = 0.998, p < 0.05) content in the three solvent extracts. TLC analysis showed three unique compounds in PE extract which may have a role in apoptosis mediated cytotoxicity. These results called for futher chemical characterisation of MeOH and PE extract of SBOI for specific bioactivity.