Race, masculinity, and boot camp failure
- Amber L. Beckley
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Black men, especially those in the lower-class are stereotyped as hypermasculine. Such stereotypes may affect placement in criminal justice programs as well as whether offenders successfully complete programming given placement. This article considers whether the intersection of class and race affect boot camp failure. Using data from MacKenzie’s evaluation of correctional boot camps, results show that neither race, nor the interaction of race with indicators of orientation towards decent or street behavior has any effect on dropping out of boot camp. What is significant in predicting boot camp completion is the offender’s belief prior to beginning the program that he is “tough enough” to handle the institution. However, this result is opposite of expected for black men. The implications of this result and future directions are considered.
- Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: W.W. Norton.
- Benda, B. B., Toombs, N. J., & Peacock, M. (2006). Distinguishing graduates from dropouts and dismissals: Who fails boot camp? Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 27–38. CrossRef
- Bottcher, J., & Ezell, M. E. (2005). Examining the effectiveness of boot camps: A randomized experiment with long-term follow up. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42(3), 309–332. CrossRef
- Bridges, G. S., & Steen, S. (1998). Racial disparities in official assessments of juvenile offenders: Attributional stereotypes as mediating mechanisms. American Sociological Review, 63, 554–570. CrossRef
- Burns, J. C., & Vito, G. F. (1995). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63–67.
- Cloward, R. A., & Ohlin, L. E. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free.
- Cohen, A. K. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. Glencoe, IL: Free.
- Curtis, L. A. (1975). Violence, race, and culture. Lexington, MA: Heath.
- Donaldson, M. (1993). What is hegemonic masculinity? Theory and Society, 22(5), 643–657. CrossRef
- Gray, H. (1995). Black masculinity and visual culture. Callaloo, 18(2), 401–405. CrossRef
- Hindelang, M. J., Hirschi, T., & Weis, J. G. (1981). Measuring delinquency. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Kilmartin, C. (2007). The masculine self (3rd ed.). New York: Sloan.
- Lauritsen, J. L., & White, N. A. (2001). Putting violence in its place: The influence of race, ethnicity, gender, and place on the risk for violence. Criminology and Public Policy, 1(1), 37–60. CrossRef
- Lutze, F. E., & Bell, C. A. (2005). Boot camp prisons as masculine organizations: Rethinking recidivism and program design. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 40(3–4), 133–152. CrossRef
- MacKenzie, D. L., & Corbett, R. P. (1994). Results of a multisite study of boot camp prisons. Federal Probation, 58(2), 60–66.
- MacKenzie, D. L. (1998). Multisite evaluation of shock incarceration: Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and TEXAS, 1987–1992 [Computer file]. ICPSR version. College Park, MD: University of Maryland [producer], 1997. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].
- MacKenzie, D. L., Brame, R., McDowall, D., & Souryal, C. (1995). Boot camp prisons and recidivism in eight states. Criminology, 33(3), 327–357. CrossRef
- Martinez, R. (2002). Latino homicide. New York: Routledge.
- McNulty, T. L., & Bellair, P. E. (2003). Explaining racial and ethnic differences in serious adolescent violent behavior. Criminology, 41(3), 709–747. CrossRef
- Messerschmidt, J. W. (1993). Masculinities and crime. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
- Miller, W. B. (1958). Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 5–19. CrossRef
- Phillips, J. A. (2002). White, black, and Latino homicide rates: Why the difference? Social Problems, 49(3), 349–374. CrossRef
- Saint-Aubin, A. F. (1994). TESTERIA: The dis-ease of black men in a white supremacist, patriarchal culture. Callaloo, 17(4), 1054–1073. CrossRef
- Steffensmeier, D., & Demuth, S. (2000). Ethnicity and sentencing outcomes in US Federal Courts: Who is punished more harshly? American Sociological Review, 65, 705–729. CrossRef
- Steffensmeier, D., Ulmer, J., & Kramer, J. (1998). The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sentencing: The punishment cost of being young, black, and male. Criminology, 36(4), 763–798. CrossRef
- Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2006). Structure and culture in African American adolescent violence: A partial test of the “code of the street” thesis. Justice Quarterly, 23(1), 1–33. CrossRef
- Tonry, M. (1995). Malign neglect: Race, crime, and punishment in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Tonry, M., & Lynch, M. (1996). Intermediate sanctions. Crime and Justice, 20, 99–144. CrossRef
- Uggen, C. (2000). Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: A duration model of age, employment, and recidivism. American Sociological Review, 65, 529–546. CrossRef
- Weis, R., Crockett, T. E., & Vieth, S. (2004). Using MMPI-A profiles to predict success in a military-style residential treatment program for adolescents with academic and conduct problems. Psychology in the Schools, 41(5), 563–574. CrossRef
- Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2001). Toward an evidence-based approach to preventing crime. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 578, 158–173. CrossRef
- Winant, H. (2001). The World is a ghetto: Race and democracy since World War II. New York: Basic Books.
- Wolfgang, M. E., & Ferracuti, F. (1967). The subculture of violence. London: Tavistock.
- Race, masculinity, and boot camp failure
Crime, Law and Social Change
Volume 49, Issue 4 , pp 303-314
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Amber L. Beckley (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, 2220 LeFrak Hall, College Park, MD, 20742, USA