Evaluating the Cost of Organised Crime from a Comparative Perspective
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Whilst any estimation of crime costs is a challenge even at a national level and in respect to crimes not particularly problematic from the definitional viewpoint, like volume crimes, the task is much harder when one has to deal with the harm caused by organised crime, especially from a comparative perspective. First, notwithstanding many international acts and studies, the term ‘organised crime’ is still one of those most debated and blurred in criminology. To complicate matters further, any cross-country assessment encounters such a wide variety of national differences (cultural, in the definition of offences, and in crime data collection systems) that the results are hardly comparable. Though extremely difficult, discussing the topic makes a great deal of sense today, and especially within the European Union, because there is strong demand for sound knowledge on the most harmful activities perpetrated by organised criminal groups and where these are localised. Considering the increasing importance attached to the issue, this article critically discusses existing attempts to measure organised crime harm from a comparative perspective, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. It first reviews harm assessment models developed to date at the international level, and mainly consisting of surveys. It then presents a different approach to the subject, one more centered on official statistics and which has recently resulted in the development of a methodology in the context of a EU-funded study entitled IKOC (Improving Knowledge on Organised Crime to develop a common European approach).
- Alvazzi del Frate, A. (2004). The international crime business survey: findings from nine central-eastern European Cities. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 10(2/3), 137–161. CrossRef
- Aromaa, K., Leppä, S., Nevala, S., & Ollus, N. (Eds.) (2003). Crime and Criminal Justice in Europe and North America 1995–1997: Report on the Sixth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and Criminal Justice Systems, Publication Series n. 40. Helsinki: European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI).
- Brand, S., & Price, R. (2000). The economic and social costs of crime, Home Office research study 217. London: Home Office.
- Brantingham, P., & Easton, S. T. (1998). The costs of crime. Who pays and how much? 1998 Update. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute.
- Censis (Centro Studi Investimenti Sociali- Centre for Social Study and Policies) (1992). Contro e dentro. Milan: FrancoAngeli.
- Commission of the European Communities (2006). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee “Developing a Comprehensive and Coherent EU Strategy to Measure Crime and Criminal Justice: An EU Action Plan 2006–2010”, COM(2006) 437 final. Brussels.
- Council of the European Communities (2005). The Hague Programme: Strengthening Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union. Official Journal of the European Union, C 53/1.
- Fries, S., Lysenko, T., & Polanec, S. (2003). The 2002 Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey: Results from a Survey of 6,100 firms, EBRD Working Paper n. 84.
- Lee, A., & Thorns, J. (2003). The economic and social cost of crime, paper presented in the CICP-UNICRI MEETING. Turin.
- Maltz, M. D. (1990). Measuring the effectiveness of organized crime control efforts. Chicago: the University of Illinois, Chicago Press.
- Maltz, M. D. (1994). Defining Organized Crime. In R. J. Kelly, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of organized crime in the United States (pp. 21–37). London: Westport.
- Mayhew, P. (2003). Counting the costs of crime in Australia. Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice, n. 247. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
- Porteous, S. D. (1998). Organized crime impact study: Highlights. Solicitor-General Canada.
- PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007). Economic crime: People, culture and controls. The 4th Biennial Global Economic Crime Survey.
- Rey, G. (1993). Analisi economica ed evidenza empirica dell’attività illegale in Italia [Economic Analysis and Empirical Evidence of Illegal Activities in Italy]. In S. Zamagni (Ed.), Mercati illegali e mafie. L’economia del crimine organizzato [Illegal Markets and Mafias. The Economics of Organised Crime]. Bologna: Il Mulino.
- Richter-White, H. (2003). The direct and indirect impacts of organized crime on youth, as offenders and victims. Ottawa: Research and Evaluation Branch-Community, Contract and Aboriginal Policing Services Directorate-Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
- Savona, E. U. (Ed.) (2009). Organised Crime in the EU. A methodology for risk assessment. Rotterdam: Erasmus University, School of Law.
- Savona, E. U., Lewis, C., & Vettori, B. (Eds.) (2005). EUSTOC-Developing an EU STatistical apparatus for measuring Organised Crime, assessing its risk and evaluating organised crime policies, Transcrime Reports n. 11. Trento: Università degli Studi di Trento.
- Schwab, K. (Ed.) (2009). The global competitiveness report 2009–2010. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
- Shavell, S., & Polinsky, A. M. (2000). The economic theory of public enforcement of law. Journal of Economic Literature, XXXVIII(1), 45–77.
- Van Duyne, P. (2003). Medieval thinking and organized crime economy. In E. Viano, et al. (Eds.), Transnational organized crime (pp. 23–44). North Carolina: Durham.
- Walker, J. (1997). Estimates of the costs of crime in Australia in 1996. Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice, n. 72. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
- Wharton Econometrics Forecasting Ass. Inc. (1986). The income of organized crime. In President’s Commission on Organized Crime, The Impact: Organized Crime Today.
- Evaluating the Cost of Organised Crime from a Comparative Perspective
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
Volume 15, Issue 4 , pp 379-393
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Cross national comparisons
- Costs of organised crime