Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 120–128

Cognitions and Insomnia Subgroups

  • Sooyeon Suh
  • Jason C. Ong
  • Dana Steidtmann
  • Sara Nowakowski
  • Claire Dowdle
  • Erika Willett
  • Allison Siebern
  • Rachel Manber
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10608-011-9415-6

Cite this article as:
Suh, S., Ong, J.C., Steidtmann, D. et al. Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36: 120. doi:10.1007/s10608-011-9415-6

Abstract

This study explored cognitive predictors of multiple symptoms of insomnia (difficulty with sleep initiation, maintenance, and early morning awakenings) among a sample of individuals seeking cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia. Participants consisted of 146 clinical patients with insomnia of which 67 (45.89%) were classified as Single Symptoms subgroup and 79 (54.11%) as Combined subgroup. A receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was conducted to identify predictors of Combined versus Single Symptom subgroups. The set of predictor variables included demographics, sleep-related cognitions, circadian preferences, depression symptoms, and self-report sleep parameters with insomnia subgroups (Combined versus Single Symptom only) as the dependent variable. The ROC analysis identified two significant predictors: Self Efficacy Scale (SES) <23 and a 3-item subscale of the Glasgow Content of Thoughts Inventory (GCTI) assessing “thoughts about the environment” with scores ≥5. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that individuals with combined symptoms who had SES score <23 had significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and more number of nights with SOL >30 min, poorer sleep quality, higher insomnia severity, less morningness tendency, higher depression symptom severity, and more anxiety about anxiety and about sleep compared to individuals with SES score ≥23. These findings indicate that low self-efficacy and increased thoughts about the environment are associated with having multiple symptoms of insomnia. Further research should examine the specific role of self-efficacy and thought content in the etiology of individuals who suffer from multiple symptoms of insomnia.

Keywords

Insomnia Sleep disorders Cognitions Receiver operating characteristics Self-efficacy 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sooyeon Suh
    • 1
    • 4
  • Jason C. Ong
    • 2
  • Dana Steidtmann
    • 1
  • Sara Nowakowski
    • 1
  • Claire Dowdle
    • 3
  • Erika Willett
    • 3
  • Allison Siebern
    • 1
  • Rachel Manber
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral SciencesRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Palo Alto University-Stanford Psy.D ConsortiumPalo AltoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford University School of MedicineRedwood CityUSA

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