, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 120-128
Date: 12 Nov 2011

Cognitions and Insomnia Subgroups

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

This study explored cognitive predictors of multiple symptoms of insomnia (difficulty with sleep initiation, maintenance, and early morning awakenings) among a sample of individuals seeking cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia. Participants consisted of 146 clinical patients with insomnia of which 67 (45.89%) were classified as Single Symptoms subgroup and 79 (54.11%) as Combined subgroup. A receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was conducted to identify predictors of Combined versus Single Symptom subgroups. The set of predictor variables included demographics, sleep-related cognitions, circadian preferences, depression symptoms, and self-report sleep parameters with insomnia subgroups (Combined versus Single Symptom only) as the dependent variable. The ROC analysis identified two significant predictors: Self Efficacy Scale (SES) <23 and a 3-item subscale of the Glasgow Content of Thoughts Inventory (GCTI) assessing “thoughts about the environment” with scores ≥5. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that individuals with combined symptoms who had SES score <23 had significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and more number of nights with SOL >30 min, poorer sleep quality, higher insomnia severity, less morningness tendency, higher depression symptom severity, and more anxiety about anxiety and about sleep compared to individuals with SES score ≥23. These findings indicate that low self-efficacy and increased thoughts about the environment are associated with having multiple symptoms of insomnia. Further research should examine the specific role of self-efficacy and thought content in the etiology of individuals who suffer from multiple symptoms of insomnia.