Heterozygosity and phylogenetic relationship of Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations revealed by microsatellite analysis
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- Takamura, K. & Mori, S. Conserv Genet (2005) 6: 485. doi:10.1007/s10592-005-9004-x
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Heterozygosity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed using eight microsatellite loci for nine freshwater and one anadromous populations of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from northern Japan. Fis values and Hardy–Weinberg tests indicated that nine of the populations were in heterozygote deficit. Furthermore, on-going isolation of most of the populations by artificial destruction of population connection and habitat deterioration suggested that nearly all of the populations are likely to be in a threatened condition. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were two distinctive phylogenetic groups, each of which was composed of two and three freshwater populations. These populations included in the groups except ones recently established were located in inland waters and isolated from anadromous populations, so that they may have been able to keep unique genetic features. Therefore, it is necessary to protect as many populations as possible within the local population network including these inland populations. On the other hand, for freshwater populations located near the river mouth but recently isolated from anadromous populations by weir construction, it is important to remove or ameliorate the barrier and recover the gene flow. Microsatellite markers are important tools to monitor the population network and gene flow.