Outbreeding depression in the common frog, Rana temporaria Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Sagvik, J., Uller, T. & Olsson, M. Conserv Genet (2005) 6: 205. doi:10.1007/s10592-004-7829-3 Abstract
Theory suggests that parental relatedness is a continuous variable with a fitness optimum that we heretoforth will refer to as ‘optimal outbreeding’. In the present paper, we test this proposition from a conservation (translocation) perspective. Amphibians are facing a global decline and many amphibian populations are today small and threatened by extinction. Because genetic differentiation is often high between amphibian populations, they could be particularly sensitive to outbreeding depression, e.g. due to breakdown of locally adapted gene complexes. We tested if outbreeding would reduce fitness in common frogs,
Rana temporaria, crossed from a large and an isolated, small population, separated by 130 km, using artificial fertilization. For females from the large population, tadpoles were significantly smaller and more malformed in crosses with males from the small population, than with males from the large population. For the small population, however, no significant paternal genetic effects could be found. The difference in response to outbreeding between populations was accompanied with significant differences in the importance of maternal effects. We conclude that care should be taken when translocating frogs between distantly related populations to avoid outbreeding depression. Keywords amphibian decline inbreeding outbreeding Rana temporaria References Alford, RA, Richards, SJ 1999 Global amphibian declines: a problem in applied ecology Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30 133 165 Google Scholar Alstad, DN, Edmunds, GF 1983 Selection, outbreeding depression, and the sex ration of scale insects Science 220 93 95 Google Scholar Altwegg, R, Reyer, HU 2003 Patterns of natural selection on size at metamorphosis in water frogs Evolution 57 872 882 PubMed Google Scholar Amos, W, Balmford, A 2001 When does conservation genetics matter? Heredity 87 257 265 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Bataillon, T, Kirkpatrick, M 2000 Inbreeding depression due to mildly deleterious mutations in finite populations: size does matter Genet. Res 75 75 81 PubMed Google Scholar Bateson, P 1982 Preferences for cousins in Japanese quail Nature 295 236 237 Google Scholar Berger, L, Rybacki, M, Hotz, H 1994 Artificial fertilization of water frogs Amphibia-Reptilia 15 408 413 Google Scholar Berven, KA, Grudzien, TA 1990 Dispersal in the Wood frog (Rana sylvatica) - Implications for genetic population-structure Evolution 44 2047 2056 Google Scholar Brede, EG, Beebee, TJC 2004 Contrasting population structures in two sympatric anurans: implications for species conservation Heredity 92 110 117 PubMed Google Scholar Brown, AF 1991 Outbreeding depression as a cost of dispersal in the harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus Biol. Bull. 181 123 126 Google Scholar Driscoll, DA 1998 Genetic structure of the frogs Geocrinia lutea and Geocrinia rosea reflects extreme population divergence and range changes, not dispersal barriers Evolution 52 1147 1157 Google Scholar Edmands, S 1999 Heterosis and outbreeding depression in interpopulation crosses spanning a wide range of divergence Evolution 53 1757 1768 Google Scholar Gosner, KL 1960 A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification Herpetologica 16 183 190 Google Scholar
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