Interspecific hybridisation in rhinoceroses: Confirmation of a Black × White rhinoceros hybrid by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and microsatellite analysis Authors
Received: 12 July 2004 Accepted: 11 August 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Robinson, T., Trifonov, V., Espie, I. et al. Conserv Genet (2005) 6: 141. doi:10.1007/s10592-004-7750-9 Abstract
Black and white rhinoceroses are among the most charismatic megaherbivores and have become flagship species for international conservation. They are often subject to intense management that includes being compressed unnaturally in space and density. We present chromosomal and microsatellite evidence to substantiate the first recorded instance of interspecific hybridisation between them. The data suggest that the genetic integrity of the African rhinoceros species probably depends on differences in behavioural and ecological preferences that offer semipermeable reproductive isolation. We caution against the retention of both species in captive and other population situations where disruption of species-specific behaviour patterns may result if there is an unnatural composition in terms of age and sex, and where access to conspecific mates is restricted or absent.
Keywords African rhinoceroses FISH hybrids microsatellites References Brown, SM, Houlden, BA 1999 Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) Mol Ecol. 8 1559 1561 PubMed Cunningham , J, Harley, EH, O’Ryan, C 1999 Isolation and characterisation of microsatellite loci in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) Electrophoresis 20 1778 1780 PubMed Emslie, RH, Brooks, PM 1999African Rhino: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan IUCN/SSC African Rhino Specialist Group IUCN Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, UK
Foose T (1993) Global management of rhinos. In
Proceedings of a Conference: Rhinoceros Biology and Conservation (ed. Ryder OA), pp 32–47. Zoological Society of San Diego.
Gray, AP 1971Mammalian hybrids Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux Slough England Haldane, JS 1922 Sex ratio and unisexual sterility in hybrid animals J. Genet. 12 101 109 CrossRef Houck, ML, Ryder, OA, Vahala, J, Kock, RA, Oosterhuis, JE 1994 Diploid chromosome number and chromosomal variation in the White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) J. Hered. 85 30 34 PubMed
Leader-Williams N (1993) Theory and pragmatism in the conservation of rhinos. In
Proceedings of a Conference: Rhinoceros Biology and Conservation (ed. Ryder OA), pp 69–81. Zoological Society of San Diego. Leader-Williams, N, Brett, RA, Brookes, M, Craig, I, duToit, RF, Emslie, RH, Knight, MH, Stanley-Price, MR, Stockil, C 1997 A scheme for differentiating and defining the different situations under which live rhinos are conserved Pachyderm 23 24 28
Lindemann H (1982) African rhinoceroses in captivity. Thesis, University of Copenhagen.
Owen-Smith RN (1988) Megaherbivores–The Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology. Cambridge University Press.
Paetkau, D, Waits, LP, Clarkson, PL, Craighead, L, Strobeck, C 1997 An empirical evaluation of genetic distance statistics using microsatellite data from bear (Ursidae) populations Genetics 147 1943 1957 PubMed Seabright, M 1971 A rapid banding technique for human chromosome Lancet 2 971 972 CrossRef PubMed Smithers, R H N 1983The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion University of Pretoria Pretoria
Stanley Price MR (1993) What will it take to save the rhino. In
Proceedings of A Conference: Rhinoceros Biology and Conservation (ed. Ryder OA), pp. 48–68. Zoological Society of San Diego.
Sumner, A 1972 A simple technique for demonstrating centromeric heterochromatin Exp. Cell Res. 75 304 306 PubMed Tougard, C, Delefosse, T, Hanni, C, Montgelard, C 2001 Phylogenetic relationships of the five extant rhinoceros species (Rhinocerotidae, Perissodactyla) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 19 34 44 PubMed Trifonov, V, Yang, F, Ferguson-Smith, MA, Robinson, TJ 2003 Chromosome painting in the Perissodactyla: Delimitation of homologous regions in Burchell’s zebra (Equus burchelli) and the White (Ceratotherium simum) and Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) Cytogenet. Genome Res. 103 104 110 PubMed Yang , F, Fu, B, O’Brien, PCM, Robinson, TJ, Ryder, OA, Ferguson-Smith, MA 2003 Karyotypic relationships of horses and zebras: Results of cross-species chromosome painting Cytogenet Genome Res. 102 235 243 PubMed