Allozyme diversity in the federally threatened golden paintbrush, Castilleja levisecta (Scrophulariaceae) Article Received: 09 October 2003 Accepted: 23 August 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Godt, M.J.W., Caplow, F. & Hamrick, J. Conserv Genet (2005) 6: 87. doi:10.1007/s10592-004-7746-5 Abstract Castilleja levisecta (Scrophulariaceae), the golden paintbrush, is an insect-pollinated herbaceaous perennial found in the Pacific Northwest. Currently restricted to two island populations off British Columbia and nine populations (eight on islands) in Washington, C. levisecta is a rare species threatened with extinction. Allozymes were used to describe genetic diversity and structure in these eleven populations. Despite its threatened status and small geographic range, exceptionally high levels of genetic diversity are maintained within C. levisecta. All sixteen of the loci resolved were polymorphic within the species ( P s=100%), while the mean percentage of loci polymorphic within populations ( P p) was 65.7%. The mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus ( AP s) was 2.94 within the species and averaged 2.38 within populations ( AP p). Genetic diversity ( H es) was 0.285 for the species, whereas mean population genetic diversity ( H ep) was 0.213. Smaller populations had, on average, fewer observed alleles and less genetic diversity. A significant negative correlation ( r = −0.72) was found between genetic identity and geographic distance, indicating reduced gene flow between distant populations. The most geographically isolated population was one of the larger populations, one of the most genetically diverse and the most genetically divergent. A wide range of pairwise population genetic identities ( I = 0.771 − 0.992) was found, indicating considerable genetic divergence between some populations. Overall, 19% of the total genetic diversity was distributed among populations. Results of this survey indicate that genetic augmentation of existing populations is unnecessary. The high allelic diversity found for the species and within its populations holds promise for conservation and restoration efforts to save this rare and threatened plant species. Keywords endangered genetic diversity rare reintroduction restoration References Alvarez-Buylla, ER, Garay, AA 1994 Population genetic structure of Cecropia obtusifolia, a tropical pioneer tree species Evolution 48 437 453 Google Scholar Barrett, SCH, Kohn, JR 1991 Genetic and evolutionary consequences of small population size in plants: Implications for conservation Falk, DA Holsinger, KE eds. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants Oxford University Press New York 3 30 Google Scholar Boscaiu, M, Guemes, J 2001 Breeding system and conservation strategy of the extremely endangered Cistus carthaginensis Pau (Cistaceae) of Spain Israel J. Plant Sci. 49 213 220 Google Scholar Byers, DL, Meagher, TR 1992 Mate availability in small populations of plant species with homomorphic sporophytic self-incompatibility Heredity 68 353 359 Google Scholar Caplow, F 2001Draft Reintroduction Plan for Castilleja levisecta (Golden Paintbrush). Washington Natural Heritage Program Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia WA, USA 46 Google Scholar
Cheliak WM, Pitel JA (1984)
Techniques for Starch Gel Electrophoresis of Enzymes from Forest Tree Species. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Information Report P1-X-42. Canadian Forestry Service, Agriculture, Chalk River, Ontario, 49 pp. Crawford, DJ 1983 Phylogenetic and systematic inferences from electrophoretic studies Tanksely, SD Orton, TJ eds. Isozymes in Plant Breeding, part A Elsevier Amsterdam 257 287 Google Scholar DeMauro, MM 1993 Relationship of breeding system to rarity in the lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra) Conserv. Biol. 7 542 550 Google Scholar Ellstrand, NC, Elam, DR 1993 Population genetic consequences of small population size: Implications for plant conservation Ann. Rev. Ecol. Sys. 24 217 242 Google Scholar El Mousadik, A, Petit, JA 1996 High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among populations of the argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] endemic of Morocco Theor. & Appl. Genet. 92 832 839 Google Scholar Gamon, J 1995Report on the status of Castilleja levisecta Greenman Washington Natural Heritage Program, Washington Department of Natural Resources Olympia, WA, USA 57 Google Scholar Gilpin , ME, Soule′, ME 1986 Minimum viable populations: Processes of species extinctions Soule′, ME eds. Conservation Biology The Science of Scarcity and Diversity Sinauer Sunderland, MA, USA 9 34 Google Scholar Gitzendanner, MA, Soltis, PS 2000 Patterns of genetic variation in rare and widespread congeners Amer. J. Bot. 87 774 782 Google Scholar Godt, MJW, Hamrick, JL 1993 Genetic diversity and population structure in Tradescantia hirsuticaulis (Commeliniaceae) Amer. J. Bot. 80 959 966 Google Scholar Godt, MJW, Hamrick, JL 1996 Genetic differentiation and morphological differentiation in Liatris helleri (Asteraceae), a threatened plant species Biodiver. Conserv. 5 461 471 Google Scholar Godt, MJW, Johnson, BR, Hamrick, JL 1996 Genetic diversity and population size in four rare southern Appalachian plant species Conserv. Biol. 10 796 805 Google Scholar Godt, MJW, Hamrick, JL 1998 Low allozyme diversity in Schwalbea americana (Scrophulariaceae), an endangered plant species J. Hered. 89 89 93 Google Scholar Gottlieb, LD 1973 Genetic differentiation; sympatric speciation, and origin of a diploid species of Stephanomeria Amer. J. Bot. 60 545 553 Google Scholar Gottlieb, LD 1977 Electrophoretic evidence and plant systematics Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 64 161 180 Google Scholar
Guerrant Jr EO (2003) Recommendations for Reintroduction of Castilleja levisecta Based on Patterns of Genetic Diversity as Revealed by Allozyme Data. Report to the Washington Department of Natural Resources Natural Heritage Program.
Hamrick, JL, Godt, MJW 1989 Allozyme diversity in plant species Brown, AHD Clegg, MT Kahler, AL Weir, BS eds. Plant Population Genetics, Breeding and Genetic Resources Sinauer Sunderland, MA, USA 43 63 Google Scholar Hardy, OJ, Vekemans, X 2001 Patterns of allozyme variation in diploid and tetraploid Centaurea jacea at different spatial scales Evolution 55 943 954 Google Scholar Heckard, LR 1962 Root parasitism in Castilleja Bot. Gaz. 124 21 29 Google Scholar Hedrick, PW 1985Genetics of Populations. Jones and Bartlett Boston MA, USA 629 Google Scholar Hurlbert, SH 1971 The nonconcept of species diversity: A critique and alternative parameters Ecology 52 577 586 Google Scholar Kalinowski, ST 2004a Counting alleles with rarefaction: Private alleles and hierarchical sampling designs Conserv. Genetics 5 539 543 Google Scholar
Kalinowski ST (2004b) HP-Rare: A computer program for performing rarefaction on measures of allelic diversity.
Mol. Ecol. Notes, in press.
Karron, JD 1987 A comparison of levels of genetic polymorphism in geographically restricted and widespread congeners Evol. Ecol. 1 47 58 Google Scholar
Kaye T, Lawrence B (2003) Fitness Effects of Inbreeding and Outbreeding on Golden Paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta): Implications for Recovery and Reintroduction. Report to the Washington Department of Natural Resources.
Krauss, SL, Dixon, B, Dixon, KW 2002 Rapid genetic decline in a translocated population of the endangered plant Grevillea scapigera Conserv. Biol. 16 986 994 Google Scholar Li, CC, Horvitz, DG 1953 Some methods of estimating the inbreeding coefficient Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 5 107 117 Google Scholar Lopez-Pujol, J, Bosch, M, Simon, J, Blanche, C 2002 Allozyme variation and population structure of the very narrow endemic Seseli farrenyi (Apiaceae) Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138 305 314 Google Scholar Loveless, MD, Hamrick, JL 1988 Genetic organization and evolutionary history in two North American species of Cirsium Evolution 42 254 265 Google Scholar Manchenko, GP 1994Handbook of Detection of Enzymes on Electrophoretic Gels CRC Press Ann Arbor, MI, USA Google Scholar Messmore, NA, Knox, JS 1997 The breeding system of the narrow endemic, Helenium virginicum (Asteraceae) J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124 318 321 Google Scholar Mitton, JB, Linhart, YB, Sturgeon, KB, Hamrick, JL 1979 Allozyme polymorphisms detected in mature needle tissue of ponderosa pine J. Hered. 70 86 89 Google Scholar Moran, GF, Hopper, SD 1983 Genetic diversity and the insular population structure of the rare granite outcrop species, Eucalyptus caesia Benth Aust. J. Bot. 31 161 172 Google Scholar Nei, M 1972 Genetic distance between populations Amer. Nat. 106 283 292 Google Scholar Nei, M 1973 Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 70 3321 3323 Google Scholar Nei, M 1977 F-statistics and analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations Ann. Hum. Genet. 41 225 233 Google Scholar Paschke, M, Abs, C, Schmid, B 2002 Relationship between population size, allozyme variation, and plant performance in the narrow endemic Cochlearia bavarica Conserv. Genetics 3 131 144 Google Scholar Petit, RJ, El Mousadik, A, Pons, O 1998 Identifying populations for conservation on the basis of genetic markers Conserv. Biol. 12 844 855 Google Scholar Pleasants, JM, Wendel, JF 1989 Genetic diversity in a clonal narrow endemic, Erythronium propullans, and in its widespread progenitor, Erythronium albidum Amer. J. Bot. 76 1136 1151 Google Scholar Rohlf, FG 1992NTSYS-pc. Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Exteter Software Setauket New York Google Scholar Rousset, F 1997 Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance Genetics 145 1219 1228 Google Scholar Sheehan, M, Sprague, N 1984Report on the Status of Castilleja levisecta Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Portland, OR, USA 82 Google Scholar Soltis, PS, Soltis, DE 2000 The role of genetic and genomic attributes in the success of polyploids Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 7051 7057 Google Scholar Soltis, DE, Haufler, CH, Darrow, DC, Gastony, GJ 1983 Starch gel electrophoresis of ferns: A compilation of grinding buffers, gel and electrode buffers, and staining schedules Amer. Fern J. 73 9 27 Google Scholar Soltis, PS, Plunkett, GM, Novak, SJ, Soltis, DE 1995 Genetic variation in Tragopogon species–additional origins of the allotetraploids T. mirus and T. miscellus (Compositae) Amer. J. Bot. 82 1329 1341 Google Scholar
US Fish & Wildlife Service (1989)
Heller’s Blazing Star Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA, USA.
US Fish & Wildlife Service (1997) Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of threatened status for
Castilleja levisecta (Golden Paintbrush). Federal Register, 62(112), 31740–31748.
Treuren, RR, Bijlsma, W, Delden, W, Ouborg, NJ 1991 The significance of genetic erosion in the process of extinction. I. Genetic differentiation in Salvia pratensis and Scabiosa columbaria in relation to population size Heredity 66 181 189 Google Scholar Wang, ZF, Hamrick, JL, Godt, MJW 2004 High genetic diversity in Sarracenia leucophylla (Sarraceniaceae), a carnivorous wetland herb J. Hered. 95 234 243 Google Scholar Wendel, JF, Parks, CR 1982 Genetic control of isozyme variation in Camillia japonica L J. Hered. 73 197 204 Google Scholar Wentworth, JB 1994The Demography and Population Dynamics of Castilleja levisecta, an Endangered Perennial University of Washington WA 53 Google Scholar Whitlock, MC, McCauley, DE 1999 Indirect measures of gene flow and migration: F ST=1/(4Nm + 1) Hered. 82 117 125 Google Scholar Workman, PL, Niswander, JD 1970 Population studies on southwestern Indian tribes. II. Local genetic differentiation in the Papago. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 22 24 49 Google Scholar Wright, S 1922 Coefficients of inbreeding and relationship Amer. Nat. 56 330 338 Google Scholar Wright, S 1931 Evolution in Mendelian populations Genetics 16 97 159 Google Scholar Wright, S 1978Evolution and Genetics of Populations, Variability Among Natural Populations The University of Chicago Press Chicago, IL, USA Google Scholar