Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 183–203

A framework for traversing dense annotation lattices


DOI: 10.1007/s10579-010-9123-y

Cite this article as:
Boguraev, B. & Neff, M. Lang Resources & Evaluation (2010) 44: 183. doi:10.1007/s10579-010-9123-y


Pattern matching, or querying, over annotations is a general purpose paradigm for inspecting, navigating, mining, and transforming annotation repositories—the common representation basis for modern pipelined text processing architectures. The open-ended nature of these architectures and expressiveness of feature structure-based annotation schemes account for the natural tendency of such annotation repositories to become very dense, as multiple levels of analysis get encoded as layered annotations. This particular characteristic presents challenges for the design of a pattern matching framework capable of interpreting ‘flat’ patterns over arbitrarily dense annotation lattices. We present an approach where a finite state device applies (compiled) pattern grammars over what is, in effect, a linearized ‘projection’ of a particular route through the lattice. The route is derived by a mix of static grammar analysis and runtime interpretation of navigational directives within an extended grammar formalism; it selects just the annotations sequence appropriate for the patterns at hand. For expressive and efficient pattern matching in dense annotations stores, our implemented approach achieves a mix of lattice traversal and finite state scanning by exposing a language which, to its user, provides constructs for specifying sequential, structural, and configurational constraints among annotations.


afstuimaAnnotation-based analytics developmentPattern matching over annotationsAnnotation latticesHigh density annotation repositoriesFinite-state transductionCorpus analysis



Unstructured information management architecture


Finite state transduction


Annotation-based finite state transduction


General architecture for text engineering


Unified linguistic annotation

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IBM T.J. Watson Research CenterYorktown HeightsUSA