Language Resources and Evaluation

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 105–121

Classification of semantic relations between nominals


  • Roxana Girju
    • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • Preslav Nakov
    • University of California at Berkeley
    • Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
    • EML Research gGmbH
  • Stan Szpakowicz
    • University of Ottawa
    • Polish Academy of Sciences
  • Peter Turney
    • National Research Council of Canada
  • Deniz Yuret
    • Koç University

DOI: 10.1007/s10579-009-9083-2

Cite this article as:
Girju, R., Nakov, P., Nastase, V. et al. Lang Resources & Evaluation (2009) 43: 105. doi:10.1007/s10579-009-9083-2


The NLP community has shown a renewed interest in deeper semantic analyses, among them automatic recognition of semantic relations in text. We present the development and evaluation of a semantic analysis task: automatic recognition of relations between pairs of nominals in a sentence. The task was part of SemEval-2007, the fourth edition of the semantic evaluation event previously known as SensEval. Apart from the observations we have made, the long-lasting effect of this task may be a framework for comparing approaches to the task. We introduce the problem of recognizing relations between nominals, and in particular the process of drafting and refining the definitions of the semantic relations. We show how we created the training and test data, list and briefly describe the 15 participating systems, discuss the results, and conclude with the lessons learned in the course of this exercise.


Semantic relationsNominalsClassificationSemEval

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© Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada 2009