Original Article

Child Psychiatry and Human Development

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 427-436

First online:

Assessing Defense Structure in School-Age Children Using the Response Evaluation Measure-71-Youth Version (REM-Y-71)

  • Katy B. AraujoAffiliated withDivision of Child Psychiatry and Child Development, Stanford University School of Medicine
  • , Sanja MedicAffiliated withDivision of Child Psychiatry and Child Development, Stanford University School of Medicine
  • , Jessica YasnovskyAffiliated withDivision of Child Psychiatry and Child Development, Stanford University School of Medicine
  • , Hans SteinerAffiliated withDivision of Child Psychiatry and Child Development, Stanford University School of Medicine Email author 

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Abstract

This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3–8; age range: 8–15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and adult samples. The composite REM-Y defense scores for each factor were significant predictors of social desirability, using the Children’s Defensiveness Scale (CDS); anxiety, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC); and psychosocial functioning. This study represents the first cross-sectional empirical analysis of overall defense structure and use among children and early adolescents.

Keywords

Defense Children Anxiety Psychosocial functioning