Maternal Emotions and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Relation to Boys and Girls with AD/HD Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Maniadaki, K., Sonuga-Barke, E., Kakouros, E. et al. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev (2005) 35: 245. doi:10.1007/s10578-004-6460-3 Abstract
This study examined the impact of child gender on mothers’ emotional responses to AD/HD, self-efficacy beliefs and perceived severity of AD/HD. Mothers (
N = 118) of pre-schoolers were presented with a vignette describing a typical boy or girl with AD/HD and then completed three scales relating to their emotional response to AD/HD behaviour, their sense of parenting efficacy and their attributions about the severity of problems described. AD/HD behaviour elicited negative emotions and maternal self-efficacy was low, especially for male AD/HD. Perceived severity of the behaviour was negatively correlated with maternal sense of self-efficacy. These findings suggest that mothers of “normal” children have fixed negative emotions and low sense of self-efficacy towards a child with AD/HD and that these factors are key elements for change in the implementation of a therapeutic programme. Keywords AD/HD emotions self-efficacy sex differences attributions References Barkley, RA 1998Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatmentSecond Guilford Press New York Google Scholar Faraone, S, Biederman, J 1994 Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder familiar Harv Rev Psychiatry 1 271 287 Google Scholar Barkley, RA 1997 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Mash, EJ Terdal, LG eds. Assessment of childhood disorders3 Guilford Press New York 71 129 Google Scholar Ingram, S, Hechtman, L, Morgenstern, G 1999 Outcome issues in ADHD: adolescent and adult long-term outcome Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 5 243 250 Google Scholar Mash, EJ, Johnston, C 1982 A comparison of the mother–child interactions of younger and older hyperactive and normal children Child Dev 53 1371 1381 Google Scholar Wells, KC, Epstein, JN, Hinshaw, SP, Conners, CK, Klaric, J, Abikoff, HB, Abramowitz, A, Arnold, LE, Elliott, G, Greenhill, LL, Hechtman, L, Hoza, B, Jensen, PS, March, JS, Pelham, w, Jr, Pfiffner, L, Severe, J, Swanson, JM, Vitiello, B, Wigal, T 2000 Parenting and family stress outcomes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An empirical analysis in the MTA study J Abnorm Child Psychol 28 543 553 Google Scholar Stormshak, EA, Bierman, KL, McMahon, RJ, Lengua, LJ 2000 Parenting practices and child disruptive behaviour problems in early elementary school J Clin Child Psychol 29 17 29 Google Scholar Johnston, C 1996 Parent characteristics and parent–child interactions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant behavior J Abnorm Child Psychol 24 85 104 Google Scholar Danforth, JJ, Barkley, RA 1991 Observations of parent–child interactions with hyperactive children: research and clinical implications. Clin Psycholol Rev 11 703 727 Google Scholar Denham, SA, Workman, E, Cole, PM, Weissbrod, C, Kendziora, KT, Zahn-Waxler, C 2000 Prediction of externalizing behaviour problems from early to middle childhood: the role of parental socialization and emotion expression Dev Psychopathol 12 23 45 Google Scholar Kakouros, E, Maniadaki, K 2002 To sindromo tis DEP-I kai I epidrasi tou sti sholiki epidosi kai ti siberifora ton pedion [The effect of ADHD on children’s academic achievement and behaviour] Nea Pedia 101 152 166 Google Scholar Keown, LJ, Woodward, LJ 2002 Early parent–child relations and family functioning of preschool boys with pervasive hyperactivity J Abnorm Child Psychol 30 541 553 Google Scholar Davies, PT, Cummings, EM 1995 Children’s emotions as organizers of their reactions to interadult anger: a functionalist perspective Dev Psychol 31 677 684 Google Scholar Denham, SA 1993 Maternal emotional responsiveness and toddlers’ social emotional functioning J Child Psychol Psychiatry 34 725 728 Google Scholar
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