, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 363-380,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 16 May 2012

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize maps for insights into genome structure variation

Abstract

Integrated cytogenetic pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps were developed for chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 of maize using restriction fragment length polymorphism marker-selected Sorghum propinquum bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for 19 core bin markers and 4 additional genetic framework loci. Using transgenomic BAC FISH mapping on maize chromosome addition lines of oats, we found that the relative locus position along the pachytene chromosome did not change as a function of total arm length, indicative of uniform axial contraction along the fibers during mid-prophase for tested loci on chromosomes 4 and 5. Additionally, we cytogenetically FISH mapped six loci from chromosome 9 onto their duplicated syntenic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6, which have varying amounts of sequence divergence, using sorghum BACs homologous to the chromosome 9 loci. We found that successful FISH mapping was possible even when the chromosome 9 selective marker had no counterpart in the syntenic block. In total, these 29 FISH-mapped loci were used to create the most extensive pachytene FISH maps to date for these six maize chromosomes. The FISH-mapped loci were then merged into one composite karyotype for direct comparative analysis with the recombination nodule-predicted cytogenetic, genetic linkage, and genomic physical maps using the relative marker positions of the loci on all the maps. Marker colinearity was observed between all pair-wise map comparisons, although marker distribution patterns varied widely in some cases. As expected, we found that the recombination nodule-based predictions most closely resembled the cytogenetic map positions overall. Cytogenetic and linkage map comparisons agreed with previous studies showing a decrease in marker spacing in the peri-centromeric heterochromatin region on the genetic linkage maps. In fact, there was a general trend with most loci mapping closer towards the telomere on the linkage maps than on the cytogenetic maps, regardless of chromosome number or maize inbred line source, with just some of the telomeric loci exempted. Finally and somewhat surprisingly, we observed considerable variation between the relative arm positions of loci when comparing our cytogenetic FISH map to the B73 genomic physical maps, even where comparisons were to a B73-derived cytogenetic map. This variation is more evident between different chromosome arms, but less so within a given arm, ruling out any type of inbred-line dependent global features of linear deoxyribonucleic acid compared with the meiotic fiber organization. This study provides a means for analyzing the maize genome structure by producing new connections for integrating the cytogenetic, linkage, and physical maps of maize.

Responsible Editor: Pat Heslop-Harrison
Debbie M. Figueroa completed her doctorate by working on the cytogenetic map of maize in the H. W. Bass laboratory. Hank W. Bass is an Associate Professor at Florida State University investigating the structure and function of maize chromosomes and telomeres using molecular biology and cytogenetics.