Lesions that remove neurons expressing neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors from the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) without removing catecholaminergic neurons lead to loss of baroreflexes, labile arterial pressure, myocardial lesions, and sudden death. Because destruction of NTS catecholaminergic neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) may also cause lability of arterial pressure and loss of baroreflexes, we sought to test the hypothesis that cardiac lesions associated with lability are not dependent on damage to neurons with NK1 receptors but would also occur when TH neurons in NTS are targeted. To rid the NTS of TH neurons we microinjected anti-dopamine β-hydroxylase conjugated to saporin (anti-DBH-SAP, 42 ng/200 nl) into the NTS. After injection of the toxin unilaterally, immunofluorescent staining confirmed that anti-DBH-SAP decreased the number of neurons and fibers that contain TH and DBH in the injected side of the NTS while sparing neuronal elements expressing NK1 receptors. Bilateral injections in eight rats led to significant lability of arterial pressure. For example, on day 8 standard deviation of mean arterial pressure was 16.8 ± 2.5 mmHg when compared with a standard deviation of 7.83 ± 0.33 mmHg in six rats in which phosphate buffered saline (PBS) had been injected bilaterally. Two rats died suddenly at 5 and 8 days after anti-DBH-SAP injection. Seven-treated animals demonstrated microscopic myocardial necrosis as reported in animals with lesions of NTS neurons expressing NK1 receptors. Thus, cardiac and cardiovascular effects of lesions directed toward catecholamine neurons of the NTS are similar to those following damage directed toward NK1 receptor-containing neurons.