Persisting Neural and Endocrine Modifications Induced by a Single Fat Meal
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- Rouch, C., Meile, M. & Gerozissis, K. Cell Mol Neurobiol (2005) 25: 995. doi:10.1007/s10571-005-8470-5
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High-fat diets, modify the neuroendocrine response and, when prolonged, result in positive energy balance and obesity. Little is known about the effects of fat on the mechanisms operating in the initial steps of the neural and endocrine disturbances.
The studies reported here were designed to access the impact of the consumption of a single exclusively animal fat meal (lard), 24 h following its ingestion a) on the response of the hypothalamic serotonergic system to a standard laboratory chow meal and b) on the circulating levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin. The release of serotonin in the extracellular medial hypothalamic space (including the paraventricular-PVN and ventromedian-VMH nuclei) was determined using electrochemical detection following HPLC in samples obtained in vivo by microdialysis, in nonanesthetized adult male Wistar rats.
A lard meal resulted in decreased hypothalamic serotonin release postprandially and attenuated (24 h later) the hypothalamic serotonin response that normally follows a balanced meal.
In permanently catheterized rats, postprandial glucose and insulin levels measured in samples obtained in vivo, were either not, or only slightly, modified after a lard meal, whereas plasma leptin levels were increased. Interestingly, 24 h after a meal, insulin and leptin levels were increased in those animals eating a fat meal compared with those eating chow. Next-day glucose levels remained identical after the absorption either of a chow, or a lard meal.
The changes induced by the fat meal on peripheral and central regulators of energy and glucose homeostasis represent either adaptive mechanisms or early alterations that could render the organism vulnerable to further insults.