Mechanisms of the Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in HIV-1 Infection
- Cite this article as:
- Toborek, M., Lee, Y.W., Flora, G. et al. Cell Mol Neurobiol (2005) 25: 181. doi:10.1007/s10571-004-1383-x
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1. Alterations of brain microvasculature and the disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity are commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. These changes are most frequently found in human immunodeficiency virus-related encephalitis (HIVE) and in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HAD).
2. It has been hypothesized that the disruption of the BBB occurs early in the course of HIV-1 infection and can be responsible for HIV-1 entry into the CNS.
3. The current review discusses the mechanisms of injury to brain endothelial cells and alterations of the BBB integrity in HIV-infection with focus on the vascular effects of HIV Tat protein. In addition, this review describes the mechanisms of the BBB disruption due to HIV-1 or Tat protein interaction with selected risk factors for HIV infection, such as substance abuse and aging.