Cellulose

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 713–726

Composite films from spruce galactoglucomannans with microfibrillated spruce wood cellulose

  • Kirsi S. Mikkonen
  • Jasna S. Stevanic
  • Catherine Joly
  • Patrice Dole
  • Kari Pirkkalainen
  • Ritva Serimaa
  • Lennart Salmén
  • Maija Tenkanen
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10570-011-9524-0

Cite this article as:
Mikkonen, K.S., Stevanic, J.S., Joly, C. et al. Cellulose (2011) 18: 713. doi:10.1007/s10570-011-9524-0

Abstract

Two future wood biorefinery products, spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM) and microfibrillated spruce wood cellulose (MFC), were mixed to form composite films. The films were plasticized with different amounts of glycerol, and the preparation of films was successful even with low glycerol contents. The film properties were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, water sorption, dielectric analysis, moisture scanning dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. The addition of MFC clearly affected the properties of the films by decreasing the moisture uptake and increasing the relative humidity of softening of the films and by increasing the glass transition temperature, tensile strength, and Young’s modulus of the films. The effect of MFC addition on the tensile properties of films was emphasized at low glycerol contents. The addition of MFC did not affect the degree of crystallinity of GGM in the films, which was between 20 and 25%. MFC can be efficiently used as reinforcement of GGM films to form wood-based composite materials and to prepare GGM-based films and coatings with low plasticizer content.

Keywords

CompositesFilmsMicrofibrillated celluloseSpruce galactoglucomannans

Abbreviations

DEA

Dielectric analysis

DMA

Dynamic mechanical analysis

GGM

Spruce galactoglucomannans

MFC

Microfibrillated cellulose

OM

Optical microscopy

RH

Relative humidity

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirsi S. Mikkonen
    • 1
  • Jasna S. Stevanic
    • 2
  • Catherine Joly
    • 3
  • Patrice Dole
    • 4
  • Kari Pirkkalainen
    • 5
  • Ritva Serimaa
    • 5
  • Lennart Salmén
    • 2
  • Maija Tenkanen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food and Environmental SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.INNVENTIA AB, Fibre and Material ScienceStockholmSweden
  3. 3.LRGIA EA 3733Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1Bourg en BresseFrance
  4. 4.UMR FARE 614 INRAUniversity of ReimsReimsFrance
  5. 5.Department of PhysicsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland