Composite films from spruce galactoglucomannans with microfibrillated spruce wood cellulose
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- Mikkonen, K.S., Stevanic, J.S., Joly, C. et al. Cellulose (2011) 18: 713. doi:10.1007/s10570-011-9524-0
Two future wood biorefinery products, spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM) and microfibrillated spruce wood cellulose (MFC), were mixed to form composite films. The films were plasticized with different amounts of glycerol, and the preparation of films was successful even with low glycerol contents. The film properties were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, water sorption, dielectric analysis, moisture scanning dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. The addition of MFC clearly affected the properties of the films by decreasing the moisture uptake and increasing the relative humidity of softening of the films and by increasing the glass transition temperature, tensile strength, and Young’s modulus of the films. The effect of MFC addition on the tensile properties of films was emphasized at low glycerol contents. The addition of MFC did not affect the degree of crystallinity of GGM in the films, which was between 20 and 25%. MFC can be efficiently used as reinforcement of GGM films to form wood-based composite materials and to prepare GGM-based films and coatings with low plasticizer content.
KeywordsCompositesFilmsMicrofibrillated celluloseSpruce galactoglucomannans
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Scanning electron microscopy