Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 133–138

It is Time to Reconsider the Cardiovascular Protection Afforded by RAAS Blockade - Overview of RAAS Systems


DOI: 10.1007/s10557-011-6361-1

Cite this article as:
Tsukamoto, O. & Kitakaze, M. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther (2013) 27: 133. doi:10.1007/s10557-011-6361-1


More than a century has passed since the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) was discovered in 1897. Both circulatory and tissue RAAS have been found to be essential for regulation of the functions of the whole body, organs, tissues and cells. There is no doubt that the RAAS plays fundamental physiological roles in maintaining homeostasis, but it can also contribute to organ pathophysiology and tissue damages in some situations. Today, the usefulness of RAAS blockade is well-established in the management of a variety of cardiovascular disorders worldwide. However, the latest findings in this field are still providing us with new and unexpected insights into the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Such developments include dual blockade therapy with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and a new class of RAAS blockers, renin inhibitors. These give us the opportunity to revisit the basic principles of the RAAS and reconsider the strategies of RAAS blockade for cardiovascular protection.

Key words

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system RAAS blockade Cardiovascular protection 

Abbreviations and Acronyms


Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system


Angiotensin I converting enzyme


ACE inhibitor


Angiotensin II receptor blockers


Angiotensin II type 1 receptor


Angiotensin II type 2 receptor


Transforming growth factor


Plasma renin activity


Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular CardiologyOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineSuita OsakaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineNational Cerebral and Cardiovascular CenterSuita OsakaJapan

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