Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 779–791

Role of the EpCAM (CD326) in prostate cancer metastasis and progression

NON-THEMATIC REVIEW

DOI: 10.1007/s10555-012-9389-1

Cite this article as:
Ni, J., Cozzi, P.J., Duan, W. et al. Cancer Metastasis Rev (2012) 31: 779. doi:10.1007/s10555-012-9389-1

Abstract

Despite significant advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat prostate cancer (CaP), many patients die of secondary disease (metastases). Current therapeutic approaches are limited, and there is no cure for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, also known as CD326) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in rapidly proliferating carcinomas and plays an important role in the prevention of cell–cell adhesion, cell signalling, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Stably and highly expressed EpCAM has been found in primary CaP tissues, effusions and CaP metastases, making it an ideal candidate of tumour-associated antigen to detect metastasis of CaP cells in the circulation as well as a promising therapeutic target to control metastatic CRPC disease. In this review, we discuss the implications of the newly identified roles of EpCAM in terms of its diagnostic and metastatic relevance to CaP. We also summarize EpCAM expression in human CaP and EpCAM-mediated signalling pathways in cancer metastasis. Finally, emerging and innovative approaches to the management of the disease and expanding potential therapeutic applications of EpCAM for targeted strategies in future CaP therapy will be explored.

Keywords

EpCAM Prostate cancer Immunotherapy Prognosis Circulating tumour cells Targeted cancer therapy 

Abbreviations

ADCC

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

Adv

Adenovirus

AR

Androgen receptor

BPH

Benign prostate hyperplasia

bsAb

Bispecific antibody

CaP

Prostate cancer

CAS

Cancer-associated stroma

CD326

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

CDC

Complement-dependent cytotoxicity

CPTCs

Circulating prostate tumour cells

CRPC

Castration-resistant prostate cancer

CSCs

Cancer stem cells

CTCs

Circulating tumour cells

DARPin

Designed ankyrin repeat protein

DTX

Docetaxel

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EpCAM

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

EpEx

EpCAM Extracellular domain

EpICD

EpCAM Intracellular domain

EPR

Enhanced permeability and retention

FcγR

Fcγ Receptors

FDA

Food and drug administration

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

HGPIN

High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias

i.p.

Intraperitoneal

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

MAbs

Monoclonal antibodies

MDR

Minimum residual disease

NOD/SCID

Non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

RIP

Regulated intramembrane proteolysis

RP

Radical prostatectomy

SCID

Severe combined immunodeficient

siRNA

Short interfering RNA

TAAs

Tumour-associated antigens

TMA

Tissue microarrays

TY

Thyroglobulin

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jie Ni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paul J. Cozzi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wei Duan
    • 4
  • Sarah Shigdar
    • 4
  • Peter H. Graham
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kearsley H. John
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yong Li
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer Care CentreSt. George HospitalSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.St George Clinical School, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of New South WalesKensingtonAustralia
  3. 3.Department of SurgerySt. George HospitalSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.School of MedicineDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia

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