Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 87–98

Mislocalization and unconventional functions of cellular MMPs in cancer

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10555-006-7892-y

Cite this article as:
Strongin, A.Y. Cancer Metastasis Rev (2006) 25: 87. doi:10.1007/s10555-006-7892-y

Abstract

MMPs are multifunctional enzymes capable of targeting the extracellular matrix, growth factors, cytokines and cell surface-associated adhesion and signaling receptors. The cellular localization and the activity of MMPs are tightly controlled at both the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels. Mislocalization and presentation in unconventional cellular compartments provide MMPs with an opportunity to cleave previously unidentified proteins. This review is focused on two, entirely different MMPs, one of which is membrane-tethered and another of which is soluble (MT1-MMP and MMP-26, respectively) from twenty four known human MMPs. Our recent studies determined that both of these enzymes functioned at unexpected cellular compartments and it was resulted in the identification of novel proteolytic pathways, whose significance we only partially comprehend as of this writing. It is reasonable, however, to hypothesize from these data that many individual MMPs perform in a similar manner and display a much broader range of functions compared to what we earlier thought.

Keywords

MMPs, MMP-26, MT1-MMP Migration Invasion Tumorigenesis Pericentrin Centrosome Aneuploidy 

Abbreviations:

CT

cytoplasmic tail

DCIS

ductal carcinoma in situ

ERα anf ERβ

estrogen receptor-α and -β, respectively

ECM

extracellular matrix

ERE

estrogen response element

GFP

green fluorescent protein

MMP

matrix metalloproteinase

MT1-, MT2-, MT3-, MT4-, MT5- and MT6-MMP

membrane type-1, -2, -3, -4, -5 and -6 matrix metalloproteinase, respectively

siRNA

small interfering RNA

TIMP

tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Burnham Institute for Medical ResearchLa Jolla