, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 415-423
Date: 20 Nov 2013

Low-carbohydrate diet versus euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp for the assessment of myocardial viability with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET: a pilot study

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Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is considered the gold standard for myocardial viability. A pilot study was undertaken to compare FDG-PET using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp before 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) administration (PET-CLAMP) with a new proposed technique consisting of a 24-h low-carbohydrate diet before 18F-FDG injection (PET-DIET), for the assessment of hypoperfused but viable myocardium (hibernating myocardium). Thirty patients with previous myocardial infarction were subjected to rest 99mTc-sestamibi-SPECT and two 18F-FDG studies (PET-CLAMP and PET-DIET). Myocardial tracer uptake was visually scored using a 5-point scale in a 17-segment model. Hibernating myocardium was defined as normal or mildly reduced metabolism (18F-FDG uptake) in areas with reduced perfusion (99mTc-sestamibi uptake) since 18F-FDG uptake was higher than the degree of hypoperfusion–perfusion/metabolism mismatch indicating a larger flow defect. PET-DIET identified 79 segments and PET-CLAMP 71 as hibernating myocardium. Both methods agreed in 61 segments (agreement = 94.5 %, κ = 0.78). PET-DIET identified 230 segments and PET-CLAMP 238 as nonviable. None of the patients had hypoglycemia after DIET, while 20 % had it during CLAMP. PET-DIET compared with PET-CLAMP had a good correlation for the assessment of hibernating myocardium. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence of the possibility of myocardial viability assessment with this technique.