Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 24, Issue 7, pp 1305–1314

Reproductive factors and risk of lung cancer in female textile workers in Shanghai, China

  • Lisa G. Gallagher
  • Karin A. Rosenblatt
  • Roberta M. Ray
  • Wenjin Li
  • Dao L. Gao
  • Katie M. Applebaum
  • Harvey Checkoway
  • David B. Thomas
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-013-0208-y

Cite this article as:
Gallagher, L.G., Rosenblatt, K.A., Ray, R.M. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2013) 24: 1305. doi:10.1007/s10552-013-0208-y

Abstract

Purpose

Hormonal factors may play a role in the development of lung cancer in women. This study examined the relationship between lung cancer and reproductive factors in a large cohort of women, most of whom never smoked (97 %).

Methods

A cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China, enrolled in a trial of breast self-examination provided information on reproductive history, demographical factors, and cigarette smoking at enrollment in 1989–91. The cohort was followed until July of 2000 for incidence of lung cancer; 824 cases were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) associated with selected reproductive factors were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for smoking, age, and also parity when relevant.

Results

Nulliparous women were at increased risk compared to parous women (HR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.00–1.77). Women who had gone through menopause at baseline were at increased risk compared to women of the same age who were still menstruating. Risk was higher in women with a surgical menopause (HR = 1.64, 95 % CI 0.96–2.79) than in those with a natural menopause (HR = 1.35, 95 % CI 0.84–2.18), and risk was highest in those postmenopausal women with a hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy at baseline (HR = 1.39, 95 % CI 0.96–2.00), although the risk estimates were not statistically significant.

Conclusions

These results support experimental data that demonstrate a biological role for hormones in lung carcinogenesis.

Keywords

Parity Reproductive Cohort Lung cancer 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa G. Gallagher
    • 1
  • Karin A. Rosenblatt
    • 2
  • Roberta M. Ray
    • 3
  • Wenjin Li
    • 3
  • Dao L. Gao
    • 4
  • Katie M. Applebaum
    • 5
  • Harvey Checkoway
    • 1
    • 6
  • David B. Thomas
    • 3
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Kinesiology and Community HealthUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  3. 3.Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Zhong Shan Hospital Cancer CenterShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Department of EpidemiologyBoston University School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  6. 6.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA