Prospective study of effect modification by Toll -like receptor 4 variation on the association between Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer
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In previous studies, we observed a positive association between Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus and risk of prostate cancer, particularly aggressive cancer, which we hypothesized might be due to T. vaginalis-mediated intraprostatic inflammation and cell damage. To explore this hypothesis further, we investigated effect modification by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variation on this association. We hypothesized that TLR4 variation might serve a marker of the anti-trichomonad immune response because T. vaginalis has been shown to elicit inflammation through this receptor.
We previously genotyped the non-synonymous TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4986790, and determined T. vaginalis serostatus for 690 incident prostate cancer cases and 692 controls in a nested case–control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
A non-significant suggestion of effect modification was observed by rs4986790 carrier status on the association between T. vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer risk (p interaction = 0.07). While no association was observed among men homozygous wildtype for this SNP (odds ratio (OR) = 1.23, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.77), a positive association was observed among variant carriers (OR = 4.16, 95 % CI: 1.32–13.1).
Although not statistically significant, TLR4 variation appeared to influence the association between T. vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer risk consistent with the hypothesis that inflammation plays a role in this association. Larger studies will be necessary to explore this possible effect modification further.
- Prospective study of effect modification by Toll-like receptor 4 variation on the association between Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume 24, Issue 1 , pp 175-180
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- Springer Netherlands
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- Toll-like receptor 4
- T. vaginalis
- Prostate cancer
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
- 2. Research Center for Gene, Environment, and Human Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
- 3. Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
- 4. Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
- 5. School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA
- 6. Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
- 7. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
- 8. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
- 9. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
- 10. Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA