Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 175–180

Prospective study of effect modification by Toll-like receptor 4 variation on the association between Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer

Authors

    • Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public HealthNational Taiwan University
    • Research Center for Gene, Environment, and Human HealthNational Taiwan University
    • Department of Public Health, College of Public HealthNational Taiwan University
  • Yi Ling Huang
    • Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public HealthNational Taiwan University
  • Elizabeth A. Platz
    • Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  • John F. Alderete
    • School of Molecular BiosciencesWashington State University
  • Lu Zheng
    • Department of BiostatisticsHarvard School of Public Health
  • Jennifer R. Rider
    • Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public Health
  • Peter Kraft
    • Department of BiostatisticsHarvard School of Public Health
    • Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public Health
  • Edward Giovannucci
    • Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public Health
    • Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical School
    • Department of NutritionHarvard School of Public Health
  • Siobhan Sutcliffe
    • Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Alvin J. Siteman Cancer CenterWashington University School of Medicine
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-012-0103-y

Cite this article as:
Chen, Y.C., Huang, Y.L., Platz, E.A. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2013) 24: 175. doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0103-y

Abstract

Purpose

In previous studies, we observed a positive association between Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus and risk of prostate cancer, particularly aggressive cancer, which we hypothesized might be due to T. vaginalis-mediated intraprostatic inflammation and cell damage. To explore this hypothesis further, we investigated effect modification by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variation on this association. We hypothesized that TLR4 variation might serve a marker of the anti-trichomonad immune response because T. vaginalis has been shown to elicit inflammation through this receptor.

Methods

We previously genotyped the non-synonymous TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4986790, and determined T. vaginalis serostatus for 690 incident prostate cancer cases and 692 controls in a nested case–control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

Results

A non-significant suggestion of effect modification was observed by rs4986790 carrier status on the association between T. vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer risk (p interaction = 0.07). While no association was observed among men homozygous wildtype for this SNP (odds ratio (OR) = 1.23, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.77), a positive association was observed among variant carriers (OR = 4.16, 95 % CI: 1.32–13.1).

Conclusions

Although not statistically significant, TLR4 variation appeared to influence the association between T. vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer risk consistent with the hypothesis that inflammation plays a role in this association. Larger studies will be necessary to explore this possible effect modification further.

Keywords

Toll-like receptor 4 T. vaginalis Prostate cancer SNP Aspirin

Supplementary material

10552_2012_103_MOESM1_ESM.doc (312 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 311 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012