Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 405–420

Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic case–control study

  • Amit D. Joshi
  • Esther M. John
  • Jocelyn Koo
  • Sue A. Ingles
  • Mariana C. Stern
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-011-9889-2

Cite this article as:
Joshi, A.D., John, E.M., Koo, J. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2012) 23: 405. doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9889-2

Abstract

Purpose

Studies conducted to assess the association between fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk are inconclusive. However, few studies have distinguished between fatty and lean fish, and no studies have considered the role of different cooking practices, which may lead to differential accumulation of chemical carcinogens. In this study, we investigated the association between fish intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account fish types (lean vs. fatty) and cooking practices.

Methods

We analyzed data for 1,096 controls, 717 localized and 1,140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios using nutrient density converted variables of fried fish, tuna, dark fish and white fish consumption. We tested for effect modification by cooking methods (high- vs. low-temperature methods) and levels of doneness.

Results

We observed that high white fish intake was associated with increased risk of advanced PCA among men who cooked with high-temperature methods (pan-frying, oven-broiling and grilling) until fish was well done (ptrend = 0.001). No associations were found among men who cooked fish at low temperature and/or just until done (white fish x cooking method pinteraction = 0.040).

Conclusions

Our results indicate that consideration of fish type (oily vs. lean), specific fish cooking practices and levels of doneness of cooked fish helps elucidate the association between fish intake and PCA risk and suggest that avoiding high-temperature cooking methods for white fish may lower PCA risk.

Keywords

Cooking methodsDoneness of fishProstate cancerFish

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence interval

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FFQ

Food frequency questionnaire

HCA

Heterocyclic amine

OR

Odds ratio

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

PCA

Prostate cancer

RDD

Random digit dialing

SFBA

San Francisco Bay Area

SEER

Surveillance, epidemiology, and end result

SES

Socio-economic status

Supplementary material

10552_2011_9889_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 28 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit D. Joshi
    • 1
  • Esther M. John
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jocelyn Koo
    • 2
  • Sue A. Ingles
    • 1
  • Mariana C. Stern
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineUniversity of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Norris Comprehensive Cancer CenterLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Cancer Prevention Institute of CaliforniaFremontUSA
  3. 3.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and PolicyStanford University School of Medicine, and Stanford Cancer InstituteStanfordUSA