Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic case–control study
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Joshi, A.D., John, E.M., Koo, J. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2012) 23: 405. doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9889-2
Studies conducted to assess the association between fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk are inconclusive. However, few studies have distinguished between fatty and lean fish, and no studies have considered the role of different cooking practices, which may lead to differential accumulation of chemical carcinogens. In this study, we investigated the association between fish intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account fish types (lean vs. fatty) and cooking practices.
We analyzed data for 1,096 controls, 717 localized and 1,140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios using nutrient density converted variables of fried fish, tuna, dark fish and white fish consumption. We tested for effect modification by cooking methods (high- vs. low-temperature methods) and levels of doneness.
We observed that high white fish intake was associated with increased risk of advanced PCA among men who cooked with high-temperature methods (pan-frying, oven-broiling and grilling) until fish was well done (ptrend = 0.001). No associations were found among men who cooked fish at low temperature and/or just until done (white fish x cooking method pinteraction = 0.040).
Our results indicate that consideration of fish type (oily vs. lean), specific fish cooking practices and levels of doneness of cooked fish helps elucidate the association between fish intake and PCA risk and suggest that avoiding high-temperature cooking methods for white fish may lower PCA risk.
KeywordsCooking methodsDoneness of fishProstate cancerFish
Body mass index
Food frequency questionnaire
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Random digit dialing
San Francisco Bay Area
Surveillance, epidemiology, and end result