Patterns of meat intake and risk of prostate cancer among African-Americans in a large prospective study
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- Major, J.M., Cross, A.J., Watters, J.L. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2011) 22: 1691. doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9845-1
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Given the large racial differences in prostate cancer risk, further investigation of diet and prostate cancer is warranted among high-risk groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between type of meat intake and prostate cancer risk among African-American men.
In the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we analyzed baseline (1995–1996) data from African-American participants, aged 50–71 years. Incident prostate cancer cases (n = 1,089) were identified through 2006. Dietary and risk factor data were ascertained by questionnaires administered at baseline. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) within intake quantiles.
Neither white nor processed meat intake was associated with prostate cancer, regardless of meat-cooking method. Red meats cooked at high temperatures were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.00–1.38 and HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.03–1.44, for the upper two intake tertiles). Intake of the heterocyclic amine (HCA), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) was positively associated with prostate cancer (HR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.05–1.61, p = 0.02). No associations were observed for intake of other HCAs.
Red meats cooked at high temperatures were positively associated with prostate cancer risk among African-American men. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings.