Cancer Causes & Control

, 22:1613

Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with having pancreatic cancer

  • Rick J. Jansen
  • Dennis P. Robinson
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
  • William R. Bamlet
  • Mariza de Andrade
  • Ann L. Oberg
  • Traci J. Hammer
  • Kari G. Rabe
  • Kristin E. Anderson
  • Janet E. Olson
  • Rashmi Sinha
  • Gloria M. Petersen
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-011-9838-0

Cite this article as:
Jansen, R.J., Robinson, D.P., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.Z. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2011) 22: 1613. doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9838-0

Abstract

Objective

Studies on fruit, vegetable, fiber, and grain consumption and pancreatic cancer risk are inconclusive. We used a clinic-based case–control study specifically designed to address limitations of both cohort and case–control studies to examine the relationship.

Methods

Participants were excluded who reported changing their diet within 5 years prior to study entry. And 384 rapidly ascertained cases and 983 controls (frequency matched on age (±5 years), race, sex, and residence) completed epidemiologic surveys and 144-item food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, energy intake, and alcohol consumption.

Results

Comparing highest to lowest quintiles, we observed significant inverse associations (OR < 0.8) with significant trends (ptrend < 0.05) for citrus, melon, and berries, other fruits, dark green vegetables, deep yellow vegetables, tomato, other vegetables, dry bean and pea, insoluble fiber, soluble fiber, whole grains, and orange/grapefruit juice, and an increased association with non-whole grains. Results were similar after adjusting for diabetes or total sugar intake.

Conclusions

We provide evidence that lower consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fiber is associated with having pancreatic cancer. This may have a role in developing prevention strategies.

Keywords

DietRiskQuestionnairePancreatic cancer

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence interval

DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

FFQ

Food frequency questionnaire

NCI

National Cancer Institute

OR

Odds ratios

ptrend

p-value from test for trend

WCRF/AICR

World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rick J. Jansen
    • 1
  • Dennis P. Robinson
    • 1
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
    • 2
  • William R. Bamlet
    • 1
  • Mariza de Andrade
    • 1
  • Ann L. Oberg
    • 1
  • Traci J. Hammer
    • 1
  • Kari G. Rabe
    • 1
  • Kristin E. Anderson
    • 3
  • Janet E. Olson
    • 1
  • Rashmi Sinha
    • 4
  • Gloria M. Petersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health Sciences ResearchMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Community HealthUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  4. 4.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA