Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 725–736

Dietary habits and gastric cancer risk in north-west Iran

  • Mohammadreza Pakseresht
  • David Forman
  • Reza Malekzadeh
  • Abbas Yazdanbod
  • Robert M. West
  • Darren C. Greenwood
  • Jean E. Crabtree
  • Janet E. Cade
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-011-9744-5

Cite this article as:
Pakseresht, M., Forman, D., Malekzadeh, R. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2011) 22: 725. doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9744-5

Abstract

Objectives

North-west Iran is a high-risk area for gastric cancer (GC). Dietary practices may increase risk of GC. For the first time, the diet–GC association in this area was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire.

Methods

Cases and controls were recruited in a population-based study. In addition to collecting dietary data using a food frequency questionnaire, Helicobacter pylori antibody level was measured. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for associations between dietary factors and GC among 286 cases and 304 controls.

Results

A positive association was estimated for total fat intake (OR = 1.33/20 g, 95% CI: 1.12–1.57) and risk of GC. Inverse associations were observed for vitamin C, iron, and zinc intake and risk of GC and its subgroups (cardia, non-cardia). Fruits and vegetables consumption and refrigerator use showed inverse associations (OR = 0.72/100 g, 95% CI: 0.65–0.80 and OR = 0.75/10 years, 95% CI: 0.60–0.95, respectively). Positive association was observed among those who preferred fried food (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.45–3.37) or consumed highly salted/roasted seeds (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.13–3.43).

Conclusion

GC in north-west Iran is associated with dietary practices: foods, nutrients and food preparation habits.

Keywords

DietGastric cancerCase–control studyH. pyloriIran

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammadreza Pakseresht
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Forman
    • 3
    • 4
  • Reza Malekzadeh
    • 5
  • Abbas Yazdanbod
    • 6
  • Robert M. West
    • 7
  • Darren C. Greenwood
    • 7
  • Jean E. Crabtree
    • 8
  • Janet E. Cade
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsSchool of Health, Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  2. 2.Nutritional Epidemiology Group, Centre for Epidemiology and BiostatisticsLeeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.Section of Cancer InformationInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  4. 4.Cancer Epidemiology Group, Centre for Epidemiology and BiostatisticsLeeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of LeedsLeedsUK
  5. 5.Digestive Diseases Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Ardabil University of Medical SciencesArdabilIran
  7. 7.Division of Biostatistics, Centre for Epidemiology and BiostatisticsLeeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of LeedsLeedsUK
  8. 8.Section of Molecular GastroenterologyLeeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of LeedsLeedsUK