Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 599–610

Reproductive and menstrual factors and mammographic density in African American, Caribbean, and white women

Authors

    • Department of EpidemiologyColumbia University Mailman School of Public Health
    • Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer CenterColumbia University Medical Center
  • Diane Reynolds
    • School of NursingLong Island University
  • Julie Flom
    • Department of EpidemiologyColumbia University Mailman School of Public Health
  • Loralee Fulton
    • Othmer Cancer CenterLong Island College Hospital
  • Yuyan Liao
    • Department of EpidemiologyColumbia University Mailman School of Public Health
  • Elizabeth Kudadjie-Gyamfi
    • Department of PsychologyLong Island University
  • Mary Beth Terry
    • Department of EpidemiologyColumbia University Mailman School of Public Health
    • Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer CenterColumbia University Medical Center
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-011-9733-8

Cite this article as:
Tehranifar, P., Reynolds, D., Flom, J. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2011) 22: 599. doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9733-8

Abstract

Objective

We investigated the associations between reproductive and menstrual risk factors for breast cancer and mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a predominantly ethnic minority and immigrant sample.

Methods

We interviewed women (42% African American, 22% African Caribbean, 22% White, 9% Hispanic Caribbean, 5% other) without a history of breast cancer during their mammography appointment (n = 191, mean age = 50). We used a computer-assisted method to measure the area and percentage of dense breast tissue from cranio-caudal mammograms. We used multivariable linear regression analyses to estimate the associations between reproductive and menstrual risk factors and mammographic density.

Results

Age was inversely associated with percent density and dense area, and body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with percent density. Adjusting for age, BMI, ethnicity and menopausal status, later age at menarche (e.g., β = −7.37, 95% CI: −12.29, −2.46 for age ≥13 years vs. ≤11 years), and any use of hormonal birth control (HBC) methods (β = −5.10, 95% CI: −9.37, −0.84) were associated with reduced dense area. Ethnicity and nativity (foreign- vs. US-born) were not directly associated with density despite variations in the distribution of several risk factors across ethnic and nativity groups.

Conclusions

The mean level of mammographic density did not differ across ethnic and nativity groups, but several risk factors for breast cancer were associated with density in ethnic minority and immigrant women.

Keywords

Breast cancerMammographic densityRisk factorsEthnicityNativity status

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011