Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 1305–1314

Body mass index, effect modifiers, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled study of seven prospective cohorts

Authors

    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
    • Department of MedicineBaylor College of Medicine
  • Amy Berrington de Gonzalez
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Patricia Hartge
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Ruth M. Pfeiffer
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Yikyung Park
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • D. Michal Freedman
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Mitchell H. Gail
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Michael C. R. Alavanja
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Demetrius Albanes
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Laura E. Beane Freeman
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Wong-Ho Chow
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Wen-Yi Huang
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Richard B. Hayes
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Jane A. Hoppin
    • Epidemiology BranchNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health
  • Bu-tian Ji
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Michael F. Leitzmann
    • Department of Epidemiology and Preventive MedicineRegensburg University Medical Center
  • Martha S. Linet
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Cari L. Meinhold
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Catherine Schairer
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Arthur Schatzkin
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Jarmo Virtamo
    • Department of Chronic Disease PreventionNational Institute for Health and Welfare
  • Stephanie J. Weinstein
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
  • Wei Zheng
    • Division of EpidemiologyVanderbilt University Medical Center
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-010-9558-x

Cite this article as:
Jiao, L., Berrington de Gonzalez, A., Hartge, P. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2010) 21: 1305. doi:10.1007/s10552-010-9558-x

Abstract

Objective

To investigate whether the positive association of body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) with risk of pancreatic cancer is modified by age, sex, smoking status, physical activity, and history of diabetes.

Methods

In a pooled analysis of primary data of seven prospective cohorts including 458,070 men and 485,689 women, we identified 2,454 patients with incident pancreatic cancer during an average 6.9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used in data analysis.

Results

In a random-effects meta-analysis, for every 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI, the summary relative risk (RR) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99–1.13) for men and 1.12 (95% CI 1.05–1.19) for women. The aggregate analysis showed that compared with normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to <25), the adjusted RR was 1.13 (95% CI 1.03–1.23) for overweight (BMI: 25 to <30) and 1.19 (95% CI 1.05–1.35) for obesity class I (BMI: 30 to <35). Tests of interactions of BMI effects by other risk factors were not statistically significant. Every 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer among never and former smokers, but not among current smokers (P-interaction = 0.08).

Conclusion

The present evidence suggests that a high BMI is an independent risk factor of pancreatic cancer.

Keywords

Pancreatic cancerBody mass indexPooled analysisProspective cohortEffect modification

Abbreviation

AARP

National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study

AHS

Agricultural Health Study

ATBC

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

BCDDP

Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence interval

NCI-DCEG

National Cancer Institute-Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics

PLCO

Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

SD

Standard deviation

SWHS

Shanghai Women’s Health Study

RR

Relative risk

USRT

United States Radiologic Technologists Study

Copyright information

© US Government 2010