Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 719–727

Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

  • Tianhui Chen
  • Eva Lundin
  • Kjell Grankvist
  • Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte
  • Marianne Wulff
  • Yelena Afanasyeva
  • Helena Schock
  • Robert Johansson
  • Per Lenner
  • Goran Hallmans
  • Goran Wadell
  • Paolo Toniolo
  • Annekatrin Lukanova
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9500-2

Cite this article as:
Chen, T., Lundin, E., Grankvist, K. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2010) 21: 719. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9500-2

Abstract

Background

Little is known about correlates of first-trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first-trimester maternal concentrations of four hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), α-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-II.

Methods

About 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies, were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case–control study. The associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models.

Results

In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed.

Conclusions

Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first-trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations.

Keywords

Pregnancy Cross-sectional study Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) α-Fetoprotein (AFP) Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I IGF-II 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tianhui Chen
    • 1
  • Eva Lundin
    • 2
  • Kjell Grankvist
    • 2
  • Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte
    • 3
    • 4
  • Marianne Wulff
    • 5
  • Yelena Afanasyeva
    • 3
    • 4
  • Helena Schock
    • 1
  • Robert Johansson
    • 6
  • Per Lenner
    • 6
  • Goran Hallmans
    • 7
  • Goran Wadell
    • 8
  • Paolo Toniolo
    • 3
    • 4
    • 9
    • 10
  • Annekatrin Lukanova
    • 1
    • 9
  1. 1.Division of Cancer EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research CenterHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Department of Medical BiosciencesUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden
  3. 3.Department of Environmental MedicineNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.NYU Cancer InstituteNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Department of Clinical SciencesUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden
  6. 6.Department of Radiation SciencesUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden
  7. 7.Department of Public Health and Clinical MedicineUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden
  8. 8.Department of Clinical MicrobiologyUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden
  9. 9.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  10. 10.Institute of Social and Preventive MedicineUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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