Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 501–511

Determinants of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels in a nationwide cohort of blacks and non-Hispanic whites

  • Jacqueline Chan
  • Karen Jaceldo-Siegl
  • Gary E. Fraser
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9481-1

Cite this article as:
Chan, J., Jaceldo-Siegl, K. & Fraser, G.E. Cancer Causes Control (2010) 21: 501. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9481-1



To develop algorithms predicting serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D] for a large epidemiological study whose subjects come from large geographic areas, are racially diverse and have a wide range in age, skin types, and month of blood sample collection. This will allow a regression calibration approach to determine s25(OH)D levels replacing the more costly method of collection and analysis of blood samples.

Study design and setting

Questionnaire data from a subsample of 236 non-Hispanic whites (whites) and 209 blacks from the widely dispersed Adventist Health Study-2 (n = 96,000) were used to develop prediction algorithms for races separately and combined. A single blood sample was collected from each subject, at different times throughout the year.


Models with independent variables age, sex, BMI, skin type, UV season, erythemal zone, total dietary vitamin D intake, and sun exposure factor explained 22 and 31% of the variance of s25(OH)D levels in white and black populations, respectively (42% when combined). UV season and erythemal zone determined from measured UV radiation produced models with higher R2 than season and latitude.


Combining races with a term for race and using variables with measured UV radiation capture the variance in s25(OH)D levels better than analyzing races separately.


CancerSerum 25-hydroxyvitamin DPredictorsAdventist health study-2BlacksWhites

Supplementary material

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Chan
    • 1
  • Karen Jaceldo-Siegl
    • 1
  • Gary E. Fraser
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA