Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 10, pp 1893–1906

Influence of tumor stage, symptoms, and time of blood draw on serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds in exocrine pancreatic cancer

  • Miquel Porta
  • José Pumarega
  • Tomàs López
  • Manuel Jariod
  • Esther Marco
  • Joan O. Grimalt
  • for the PANKRAS II Study Group
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9383-2

Cite this article as:
Porta, M., Pumarega, J., López, T. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2009) 20: 1893. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9383-2

Abstract

Background

Knowledge is scant on the relationships between pathophysiologic processes common during cancer progression and changes in blood concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs).

Objective

To analyze the influence of tumor stage, cancer symptoms, and time of blood extraction on serum concentrations of OCs in exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC).

Methods

Subjects were 144 incident cases of EPC prospectively recruited in eastern Spain. Blood was drawn and face-to-face interviews with patients were conducted during hospital admission. Information on signs and symptoms was obtained from medical records and patient interviews. OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. General linear models were applied to analyze log-transformed OCs corrected for total lipids.

Results

Lower concentrations of six of the seven OCs analyzed (p,p′-DDE, three polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) were observed in patients with cholestatic syndrome (jaundice, hypocholia, and choluria). The constitutional syndrome increased only p,p′-DDT. The lowering effect of the cholestatic syndrome was stronger than the increasing effect of the constitutional syndrome (fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss), except for p,p′-DDT. When symptoms were considered, stage had only weakly inverse relationships with OC levels. The effects of symptoms on p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, and the three PCBs remained significant after adjusting by the interval from blood extraction to first symptom of EPC, and even when further adjusting by stage.

Conclusions

Restriction or adjustment by stage and timing of blood draw may be insufficient to prevent biases associated with cancer progression. Symptoms may enable investigators to assess disease-induced changes in lipophilic exposure biomarkers.

Keywords

Pancreatic neoplasmsJaundiceWeight lossPolychlorinated biphenylsDDTDichloroethylenesHexachlorobenzeneSemiologyEpidemiology, molecularLipophilic biomarkersResearch design/organization and administration

Abbreviations

β

Regression coefficient

CI

Confidence interval

p,p′-DDE

Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene or 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene

p,p-DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or (bis[p-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane)

EPC

Exocrine pancreatic cancer

GLM

General linear models

HCB

Hexachlorobenzene

HCH

Hexachlorocyclohexane

IES

Interval from blood extraction (or blood draw) to first symptom of EPC

OCs

Organochlorine compounds

PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyls

R2

Coefficient of determination

TSL

Total serum lipids

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miquel Porta
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • José Pumarega
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tomàs López
    • 1
    • 3
  • Manuel Jariod
    • 1
    • 4
  • Esther Marco
    • 5
  • Joan O. Grimalt
    • 5
  • for the PANKRAS II Study Group
  1. 1.Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM)-Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Facultat de MedicinaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Universitat Rovira i VirgiliReusSpain
  5. 5.Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC)BarcelonaSpain