The influence of deprivation and ethnicity on the incidence of esophageal cancer in England
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- Cooper, S.C., Day, R., Brooks, C. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2009) 20: 1459. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9372-5
The incidence of esophageal cancer (EC), particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), has been rising dramatically. In the USA, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is associated with deprivation and black ethnicity, while EAC is more common among whites. The influence of social deprivation and ethnicity has not been studied in England. West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit data were used to study the incidence of ESCC and EAC, and the influence of age, sex, socioeconomic status (Townsend quintiles by postcode) and ethnicity (to individual patients from Hospital Episode Statistics). From 1977 to 2004, a total of 15,138 EC were identified. Five-year directly age standardized incidence rates per 100,000 (95% CI) for men increased from 8.6 (8.0–9.1) in 1977–1981 to 13.7 (13.1–14.3) in 2000–2004 and for women from 5.0 (4.7–5.4) to 6.3 (5.9–6.6). ESCC incidence did not alter, but EAC incidence rose rapidly in males [2.1 (1.9–2.4) to 8.5 (8.1–9.0)] and in females [0.5 (0.4–0.6) to 1.7 (1.5–1.9)]. ESCC was strongly associated with the most socially deprived quintile. EAC was not associated with differences in socioeconomic status. EAC was significantly more common in white men 7.3 (6.9–7.7) and women 1.5 (1.3–1.6) when compared with black and Asian populations. In England the incidence of EAC has rapidly risen, particularly in men over the last three decades. ESCC was strongly associated with social deprivation. EAC was more common in white populations, but no association with the socioeconomic status was found.