Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1071–1082

The epidemiology of triple-negative breast cancer, including race

  • Katrina F. Trivers
  • Mary Jo Lund
  • Peggy L. Porter
  • Jonathan M. Liff
  • Elaine W. Flagg
  • Ralph J. Coates
  • J. William Eley
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9331-1

Cite this article as:
Trivers, K.F., Lund, M.J., Porter, P.L. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2009) 20: 1071. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9331-1



Predictors of intrinsic breast cancer subtypes, including the triple-negative (TN) subtype, are largely unknown. We evaluated whether anthropometrics, demographics, and reproductive history were associated with distinct breast cancer subtypes.


Invasive breast tumors from a population-based case–control study of 476 (116 black and 360 white) Atlanta women aged 20–54, diagnosed between 1990 and 1992, were centrally reviewed and immunohistochemically analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2); then grouped [TN (ER−PR−HER2−); ER−PR−HER2+; ER/PR+HER2+; ER/PR+HER2− (case-only reference group)]. Data were from interviews and anthropometric measurements; adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, including both case-only and case-control comparisons.


From the case-only analyses and compared with the ER/PR+HER2− subtype, women with TN tumors were more likely to be obese than normal/underweight [OR = 1.89 (95% CI = 1.22, 2.92)]. Regardless of HER2 status, ER−PR− tumors were associated with black race, young age at first birth, having a recent birth, and being overweight.


Distinct breast cancer subtypes have unique sociodemographic, anthropometric and reproductive characteristics and possibly different pathways for development.


Breast neoplasmsMolecular epidemiologyTumor biologyRace



Triple negative


Estrogen receptor


Progesterone receptor


Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2


Waist to hip ratio


Body mass index


Socioeconomic status


Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results



Copyright information

© US Government 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katrina F. Trivers
    • 1
  • Mary Jo Lund
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Peggy L. Porter
    • 6
  • Jonathan M. Liff
    • 2
  • Elaine W. Flagg
    • 7
    • 8
  • Ralph J. Coates
    • 9
  • J. William Eley
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health PromotionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Hematology and OncologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Winship Cancer InstituteEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Georgia Cancer Center for Excellence at GradyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.Division of Human BiologyFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  7. 7.Division of General MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  8. 8.Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB PreventionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  9. 9.National Office of Public Health GenomicsCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA