Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 19, Issue 10, pp 1305–1318

Race/ethnicity and breast cancer estrogen receptor status: impact of class, missing data, and modeling assumptions

  • Nancy Krieger
  • Jarvis T. Chen
  • James H. Ware
  • Afamia Kaddour
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-008-9202-1

Cite this article as:
Krieger, N., Chen, J.T., Ware, J.H. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2008) 19: 1305. doi:10.1007/s10552-008-9202-1



To test whether reported associations between race/ethnicity and breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status are inflated due to missing ER data, lack of socioeconomic data, and use of the odds ratio (OR) rather than the prevalence ratio (PR).


We geocoded and added census tract socioeconomic data to all cases of primary invasive breast cancer (n = 42,420) among women diagnosed between 1998 and 2002 in two California cancer registries (San Francisco Bay Area; Los Angeles County) and analyzed the data using log binomial regression.


Adjusting for socioeconomic position and tumor characteristics, in models using the imputed data, reduced the PR for the black versus white excess risk of being ER− from 1.76 (95% CI: 1.66, 1.86; adjusted for age and catchment area) to 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38, 1.56). The latter parameter estimate was 16% greater (i.e., 1.56) in models excluding women with missing ER data, and was 43% greater when estimated using the OR (i.e., 1.82).


Studies on race/ethnicity and ER status that fail to account for missing data and socioeconomic data and report the OR are likely to yield inflated estimates of racial/ethnic disparities in ER status.


Breast cancer estrogen receptor statusHealth disparitiesEpidemiologyRace/ethnicitySocioeconomic positionPovertyBlack HispanicAsian and Pacific Islander

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy Krieger
    • 1
  • Jarvis T. Chen
    • 2
  • James H. Ware
    • 3
  • Afamia Kaddour
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Society, Human Development and HealthHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Society, Human Development and HealthHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Dean for Academic Affairs and Development of BiostatisticsHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Global Health and PopulationHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA