Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 259–267

Psychological attitudes and risk of breast cancer in Japan: a prospective study

  • Kenji Wakai
  • Masayo Kojima
  • Kazuko Nishio
  • Sadao Suzuki
  • Yoshimitsu Niwa
  • Yingsong Lin
  • Takaaki Kondo
  • Hiroshi Yatsuya
  • Koji Tamakoshi
  • Akio Yamamoto
  • Shinkan Tokudome
  • Hideaki Toyoshima
  • Akiko Tamakoshi
  • for the JACC Study Group
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-006-0111-x

Cite this article as:
Wakai, K., Kojima, M., Nishio, K. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2007) 18: 259. doi:10.1007/s10552-006-0111-x
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Abstract

Objective

To examine the association between psychological factors and the risk of breast cancer prospectively in a non-Western population.

Methods

Data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study were analyzed. From 1988 to 1990, 34,497 women aged 40–79 years completed a questionnaire on medical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. The rate ratios (RRs) of their responses were computed by fitting to proportional hazards models.

Results

During the mean follow-up period of 7.5 years, 149 breast cancer cases were documented. Those individuals who possessed “ikigai” (Japanese term meaning something that made one’s life worth living) showed a significantly lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR = 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47–0.94). Those who perceived themselves as able to make decisions quickly also had a lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.36–0.87). The other factors investigated, including ease of anger arousal and self-perceived stress of daily life were not associated with breast cancer risk.

Conclusions

Although further studies will be necessary to verify these findings, our results suggest that having “ikigai” and being decisive decrease an individual’s subsequent risk of breast cancer.

Keywords

Breast cancer Psychological factors Ikigai Decisiveness Prospective studies 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenji Wakai
    • 1
  • Masayo Kojima
    • 2
  • Kazuko Nishio
    • 3
  • Sadao Suzuki
    • 2
  • Yoshimitsu Niwa
    • 3
  • Yingsong Lin
    • 4
  • Takaaki Kondo
    • 5
  • Hiroshi Yatsuya
    • 6
  • Koji Tamakoshi
    • 6
  • Akio Yamamoto
    • 7
  • Shinkan Tokudome
    • 2
  • Hideaki Toyoshima
    • 6
  • Akiko Tamakoshi
    • 3
  • for the JACC Study Group
  1. 1.Division of Epidemiology and PreventionAichi Cancer Center Research InstituteNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Health Promotion and Preventive MedicineNagoya City University Graduate School of Medical SciencesNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision MakingNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Public HealthAichi Medical University School of MedicineAichiJapan
  5. 5.Department of Medical TechnologyNagoya University School of Health SciencesNagoyaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Public Health/Health Information DynamicsNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  7. 7.Infectious Diseases DivisionHyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental SciencesKobeJapan

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