Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 10, pp 1305–1309

The effect of occasional smoking on smoking-related cancers

In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Authors

  • Bine Kjøller Bjerregaard
    • Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer Society
    • Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer Society
  • Mette Sørensen
    • Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer Society
  • Kirsten Frederiksen
    • Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer Society
  • Anne Tjønneland
    • Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer Society
  • Sabine Rohrmann
    • Division of Clinical EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research Centre
  • Jakob Linseisen
    • Division of Clinical EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research Centre
  • Manuela M. Bergman
    • Department of EpidemiologyGerman Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke
  • Heiner Boeing
    • Department of EpidemiologyGerman Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke
  • Sabina Sieri
    • Nutritional Epidemiology UnitNational Cancer Institute
  • Domenico Palli
    • Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology UnitCSPO-Scientific Institute of Tuscany
  • Rosario Tumino
    • Cancer RegistryAzienda Ospedaliera “Civile M.P. Arezzo”
  • Carlotta Sacerdote
    • Servizio di Epidemiologia dei TumoriUniversitá di Torino
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
    • National Institute for Public Health and the EnvironmentCentre for Nutrition and Health
  • Frederike L. Büchner
    • National Institute for Public Health and the EnvironmentCentre for Nutrition and Health
  • Inger Torhild Gram
    • University of Tromsø
  • Tonje Braaten
    • University of Tromsø
  • Eiliv Lund
    • University of Tromsø
  • Göran Hallmans
    • Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional researchUmeå University
  • Åsa Ågren
    • Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional researchUmeå University
  • Elio Riboli
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
Brief Report

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-006-0068-9

Cite this article as:
Bjerregaard, B.K., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Sørensen, M. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2006) 17: 1305. doi:10.1007/s10552-006-0068-9

Abstract

Objective

Most studies on tobacco smoking have focused on daily-smokers. Occasional smokers, who have never smoked daily, have often been included in the reference group of never-smokers. We have investigated the association between occasional smoking and cancer of the bladder, kidney, pancreas, upper aero-digestive tract and lung.

Methods

The study population consisted of 158,488 persons, who provided information on occasional smoking, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 780 of whom developed a smoking-related cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard model, stratified by gender and country to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for smoking-related cancers.

Results

The results suggest that occasional smokers have a higher risk of bladder cancer (IRR: 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93–3.98) and of the major smoking-related cancers combined (IRR: 1.24, 95% CI 0.80–1.94) than true never-smokers. Including occasional smokers in the reference group resulted in a lower risk estimate for former and current smokers.

Conclusions

Occasional smoking should be discouraged.

Keywords

CancerCohort StudyEpidemiologyTobacco smoke

Abbreviations

IRR

Incidence rate ratio

CI

Confidence intervals

EPIC

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006