Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 10, pp 1305–1309

The effect of occasional smoking on smoking-related cancers

In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • Bine Kjøller Bjerregaard
  • Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
  • Mette Sørensen
  • Kirsten Frederiksen
  • Anne Tjønneland
  • Sabine Rohrmann
  • Jakob Linseisen
  • Manuela M. Bergman
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Sabina Sieri
  • Domenico Palli
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Carlotta Sacerdote
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Frederike L. Büchner
  • Inger Torhild Gram
  • Tonje Braaten
  • Eiliv Lund
  • Göran Hallmans
  • Åsa Ågren
  • Elio Riboli
Brief Report

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-006-0068-9

Cite this article as:
Bjerregaard, B.K., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Sørensen, M. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2006) 17: 1305. doi:10.1007/s10552-006-0068-9

Abstract

Objective

Most studies on tobacco smoking have focused on daily-smokers. Occasional smokers, who have never smoked daily, have often been included in the reference group of never-smokers. We have investigated the association between occasional smoking and cancer of the bladder, kidney, pancreas, upper aero-digestive tract and lung.

Methods

The study population consisted of 158,488 persons, who provided information on occasional smoking, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 780 of whom developed a smoking-related cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard model, stratified by gender and country to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for smoking-related cancers.

Results

The results suggest that occasional smokers have a higher risk of bladder cancer (IRR: 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93–3.98) and of the major smoking-related cancers combined (IRR: 1.24, 95% CI 0.80–1.94) than true never-smokers. Including occasional smokers in the reference group resulted in a lower risk estimate for former and current smokers.

Conclusions

Occasional smoking should be discouraged.

Keywords

CancerCohort StudyEpidemiologyTobacco smoke

Abbreviations

IRR

Incidence rate ratio

CI

Confidence intervals

EPIC

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bine Kjøller Bjerregaard
    • 1
  • Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
    • 1
  • Mette Sørensen
    • 1
  • Kirsten Frederiksen
    • 1
  • Anne Tjønneland
    • 1
  • Sabine Rohrmann
    • 2
  • Jakob Linseisen
    • 2
  • Manuela M. Bergman
    • 3
  • Heiner Boeing
    • 3
  • Sabina Sieri
    • 4
  • Domenico Palli
    • 5
  • Rosario Tumino
    • 6
  • Carlotta Sacerdote
    • 7
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
    • 8
  • Frederike L. Büchner
    • 8
  • Inger Torhild Gram
    • 9
  • Tonje Braaten
    • 9
  • Eiliv Lund
    • 9
  • Göran Hallmans
    • 10
  • Åsa Ågren
    • 10
  • Elio Riboli
    • 11
  1. 1.Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer SocietyCopenhagen ØDenmark
  2. 2.Division of Clinical EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research CentreHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyGerman Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-RehbrückeNuthetalGermany
  4. 4.Nutritional Epidemiology UnitNational Cancer InstituteMilanItaly
  5. 5.Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology UnitCSPO-Scientific Institute of TuscanyFlorenceItaly
  6. 6.Cancer RegistryAzienda Ospedaliera “Civile M.P. Arezzo”RagusaItaly
  7. 7.Servizio di Epidemiologia dei TumoriUniversitá di TorinoTorinoItaly
  8. 8.National Institute for Public Health and the EnvironmentCentre for Nutrition and HealthBilthovenNetherlands
  9. 9.University of TromsøTromsøNorway
  10. 10.Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional researchUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  11. 11.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance