Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 8, pp 1045–1052

Ultraviolet radiation, dietary vitamin D, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (United States)

  • Patricia Hartge
  • Unhee Lim
  • D. Michal Freedman
  • Joanne S. Colt
  • James R. Cerhan
  • Wendy Cozen
  • Richard K. Severson
  • Scott Davis
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-006-0040-8

Cite this article as:
Hartge, P., Lim, U., Freedman, D. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2006) 17: 1045. doi:10.1007/s10552-006-0040-8

Abstract

Objective

Because of conflicting findings about the relationship between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we evaluated the risk of several indicators related to UV, including two not previously studied: dietary vitamin D, and ambient UV levels by residential location.

Methods

As part of a case–control study conducted in four Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries, we collected UV information from a self-administered questionnaire and computer-assisted personal interview with 551 NHL cases and 462 controls. We estimated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from unconditional logistic regression models.

Results

Eye color, a marker of host susceptibility to UV, showed a decreasing risk gradient for lightest eyes (0.47) compared to darkest. Relative risks were in the range of 0.73–0.78 for participants reporting more hours in the mid-day summer sun. Use of sunlamps or tanning booths was associated with decreased risk (RR = 0.88), as was estimated overall ambient UV (RR = 0.76 per 50 RB-units) overall. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was not related to risk. Results were thus consistent for the various indicators, although some estimated risks were not statistically significant. Effects were generally similar for diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) and follicular lymphomas.

Conclusion

These data suggest a slight protective effect of sunlight against NHL, and they agree with geographic patterns of NHL incidence observed in the US.

Keywords

Non-Hodgkin lymphomaSunlightEpidemiologyVitamin D

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Hartge
    • 1
  • Unhee Lim
    • 1
  • D. Michal Freedman
    • 1
  • Joanne S. Colt
    • 1
  • James R. Cerhan
    • 2
  • Wendy Cozen
    • 3
  • Richard K. Severson
    • 4
  • Scott Davis
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer InstitueRockvilleUSA
  2. 2.Mayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA
  3. 3.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Karmanos Cancer Institute and Department of Family MedicineWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  5. 5.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of WashingtonSeattleUSA